Residual phosphate from fertilizer P or manure seemed to accumulate mainly as octocalcium phosphate (OCP) in 23 alkaline and calcareous soils of eastern Colorado. These soils contained 37 to 162 ppm NaHCO3-soluble P. Phosphorus removed by cropping varied between 58 and 275 ppm with 5 to 8 crops before P deficiency re-appeared. Phosphorus uptake was highly correlated with NaHCO3-soluble P (four successive extracts), resin-extractable P, and labile P by 32P isotopic dilution. All of the OCP dissolved during cropping. This material seems to have a very high availability coefficient for plants. Accumulation of fertilizer P residues in this form would appear to be beneficial since this P is potentially all available to crops. Therefore, methods for estimating the amount of OCP in soils should be useful.