The management of insect pests and viruses in crop fields can seem straightforward. In the most basic sense, a producer need only remove insects or virus vectors from their fields and the potentially costly problem is resolved. There are, however, many factors that might be can considered and which can influence the economics and efficacy of pest control choices. Examples of these include: the pest’s distribution, the available insecticidal materials, ecological factors such as the surrounding crops and weeds, and the crop itself. Greater understanding of these factors can lead to management tools and recommendations that result in yield protection but also reduced expenses on insecticides.