CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A NOVEL MULTI-MATERIAL BIOPRINTING SYSTEM
Betancourt, Nicholas Guillermo
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Millions of people suffer from damaged tissues or organs. The gold standard for treatment is tissue/organ transplantation; however, the demand for donated tissues and organs eclipses the number of donors. Scaffold-based tissue engineering aims to produce tissue/organ substitutes or scaffolds for transplants or implantation for promoting tissue regeneration. Extrusion-based bioprinting has recently emerged to create scaffolds by printing biomaterials with living cells in a layer-by-layer pattern. A significant limitation of existing extrusion-based techniques is their material distribution, e.g., printing scaffolds from only one material. Multi-material bioprinting is essential to mimic the complex anisotropic and heterogeneous features of native tissues. Researchers have taken steps towards making multi-material scaffolds; however, current methods are limited in terms of the material distribution and longitudinal/circumferential organization in the printed filaments. This M.Sc. work aims to study the design of a multi-material bioprinting system with spatial control of material in longitudinal and circumferential directions. The design was conceived through a methodical approach, from technical specifications to conceptual-, embodiment-, and detail-design stages. The system will employ a combination of a desktop 3D printer for x-y-z control, a multi-channel pressure controller for on-the-fly adjustments, a custom printhead for organizing multiple inlets to a single outlet, and a carriage to affix the printhead assembly to the x-y-z- controller. For the proposed system, spatial control of material comes from several configurations of the custom modular printhead and the flow controller. Axiomatic Design principles are then used to compare and evaluate the proposed systems against existing systems in terms of material control and ease of configurability. Specified functional requirements and design ranges quantify longitudinal and circumferential material control and ease of configurability. Then, the system ranges for the functional requirements were built using the reported data of the existing systems. Axiom 1 shows that side-by-side, core-and-shell, and advanced techniques lack functional independence. Then, Axiom 2 shows that the proposed technique has the probability of completing the specified functions, granting it as the single-best design. The resulting design, justified by the evaluation and comparison, shows that this work is promising in helping researchers realize intricate scaffold designs with specific material control.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
CommitteeBergstrom, Donald J; Cree, Duncan; Chen, Li
Copyright DateDecember 2021
Advanced Engineering Design