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dc.contributor.advisorYu, Peiqiang
dc.creatorGuevara Oquendo, Victor 1986-
dc.date.accessioned2017-06-23T21:03:02Z
dc.date.available2017-06-23T21:03:02Z
dc.date.created2017-06
dc.date.issued2017-06-23
dc.date.submittedJune 2017
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10388/7926
dc.description.abstractABSTRACT Brassica carinata meal from bio-fuel processing and canola meal from bio-oil processing have recently become available, but little data is available on their chemical, nutrient profile, bioactive compounds, and nutrient utilization and availability in livestock, especially when carinata meal is blended with other feedstuffs as a pellet in order to optimize nutrient and amino acid supply. The aim of this project was to develop and test blended pelleted products based on combinations of carinata/canola meal, pea screenings, and lignosulfonate at different levels for ruminants. Chemical profile, energy value, rumen degradation kinetics of nutrients, hourly effective rumen degradation ratios/potential N-to-energy synchronization, and intestinal digestion of nutrients were analyzed, then the truly absorbed protein supply to dairy cattle and feed milk values were evaluated using on the DVE/OEB system and the NRC Dairy model. Comparisons were made among blend pelleted products based on carinata meal versus canola meal based pelleted products, addition vs. non addition of lignosulfonate, and low level of inclusion of those co-products with high level of inclusion of pea screenings vs. high level of inclusion of co-products with low level of inclusion of pea screenings. Statistical analyses were performed using PROC MIXED of SAS 9.4 with significance declared at P< 0.05. The results showed that all blend pelleted products had safe levels of glucosinolates (3.46 to 5.86 µmol/g) and condensed tannins (maximum of 0.033 % DM), and high pellet durability index (PDI) (88.5 to 97.5 %). Carinata based pelleted products were lower in NDF content (-4.6 % DM), but higher in protein (+3.2 % DM), and in total amino acids (+1.23 % DM) than the canola pelleted products. Canola pelleted products contained higher level of methionine (1.90 vs. 1.70 % CP) than the carinata blend pelleted products. Canola blend pelleted products contained higher lysine ranging from 5.71 to 5.90 % CP than carinata based pelleted products which ranged from 4.20 to 4.43 % CP. Carinata based blend pelleted products contained higher NE for lactation (NEL), maintenance (NEm) and growth (NEg) (1.99 vs. 1.83, 2.15 vs. 1.98 and 1.47 vs. 1.33 Mcal/kg, respectively) than canola based pelleted products. In terms of protein fractions, carinata based blend pelleted products contain lower true soluble protein (PA2) with a mean of 29.5 % of CP and indigestible protein (PC) with a mean of 1.5 % of CP, but higher (P< 0.05) fiber bound-protein (PB2) with a mean of 12.0 % of CP than canola based blend pelleted products. In terms of CHO fractions, carinata based blend pelleted products had lower (P< 0.05) indigestible fiber (CC) with a mean of 12.5 % of CHO. According to the hourly effective degradation ratios between rumen available N and CHO (ED_N/ED_CHO), all blend pelleted products had overall degradation ratios above the optimal N to CHO ratio. In addition, carinata based blend pelleted products contain lower (P< 0.05) rumen effective degraded protein (221 vs. 245 g/kg DM), higher rumen bypass protein (207 vs. 146 g/kg DM), higher effective fiber degradability of NDF (28.3 vs. 25.4 %), higher intestinal absorbable feed protein (IADP 146 vs. 90 g/kg DM) than canola based blend pelleted products. Furthermore, carinata based blend pelleted products contained higher total protein truly digested in the small intestine (DVE 218 vs. 158 g/kg DM), metabolizable protein (MP 210 vs. 151 g/kg DM) and lower degradable protein balance (OEB and DPB values) (105 vs. 130 and 111 vs. 142 g/kg DM, respectively) than canola based blend pelleted products, which leads them to contain higher (P< 0.05) feed milk value (FMVDVE and FMVNRC) (4.43 vs. 3.22 and 4.01 vs. 2.76 g/kg DM, respectively) than canola based blend pelleted products.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.subjectPelleting
dc.subjectCarinata
dc.subjectCanola
dc.subjectPea
dc.subjectLignosulfonate.
dc.titleEVALUATION OF PELLETED PRODUCTS BASED ON COMBINATION OF NEW CO-PRODUCTS FROM BIO-FUEL OR BIO-OIL PROCESSING, PEA SCREENINGS AND LIGNOSULFONATE CHEMICAL COMPOUND FOR RUMINANT DIETS
dc.typeThesis
dc.date.updated2017-06-23T21:03:02Z
thesis.degree.departmentAnimal and Poultry Science
thesis.degree.disciplineAnimal Science
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Saskatchewan
thesis.degree.levelMasters
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
dc.type.materialtext
dc.contributor.committeeMemberChristensen, David
dc.contributor.committeeMemberMcKinnon, John
dc.contributor.committeeMemberLaarveld, Bernard
dc.contributor.committeeMemberWarkentin, Tom


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