Survival of Penicillium bilaiae over the winter months is essential for use on fall seeded
canola crops. Through a series of freeze experiments it is has been demonstrated that P.
bilaiae can successfully survive low temperatures down to -196 °C when there is a
controlled decrease in temperature. Penicillium bilaiae is still viable after being frozen at
-20 °C for 100 days. Cycles of freezes to -8 °C and thaws at 2 °C had no effect on
viability of P. bilaiae. Penicillium bilaiae on seed should be able to successfully survive
freezing conditions associated with a Saskatchewan winter.