PRINCIPLES OF HIGHWAY SUB-SURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS IN A MULTIPLE AQUIFER ENVIRONMENT
Antunes, Paulo Jorge Marques
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The construction of Provincial Highway No. 16 near the town of Borden, Saskatchewan involved the successful control of three aquifers intercepted by the highway grade. At the time of design and construction of this highway,very little literature was available to design ground water control (sub-drainage) systems for intercepted aquifers. The experience gained at this site was documented in order to assist in the construction of sub-drainage systems of other sites. The objectives of this thesis are to: 1. Document the procedure used to address the seepage problem. 2. Explain the events that were observed before, during and after construction of the highway. 3. Establish criteria for alternative designs for future roadway construction under similar conditions. The methodology used to address the seepage problem involved a geological site characterization of the study area. The documentation of the design and construction activities provides a source of information for other agencies, which must deal with seepage beneath roadways. The design procedure is based on two concepts, base flow and peak flow. It uses Darcy's Law to calculate the flow area required to transmit a base aquifer flow. The storage required for a peak flow is designed by determining the storage of the granular back fill. This document will serve as a valuable resource for agencies that construct roadways intercepting aquifers. The cost savings presented in this document make the design procedure presented a valuable tool for roadway engineers throughout the world.