In silence we remember : the historical archaeology of Finnish cemeteries in Saskatchewan
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Above-ground archaeological techniques are used to study six Finnish cemeteries in Saskatchewan as a material record of the way that Finnish immigrants saw themselves - individually, collectively, and within the larger society. Findings are overlaid with data about the social identity of Saskatchewan Finns drawn from oral and documentary records. Variations in the expressions of social identity provided by the different Finnish cemeteries are identified and explored. Also, four areas in which major changes in social identity occurred over time are identified and discussed: family structure and relationships, ethnicity, views of death, and social values and beliefs. Finally, a four-stage pattern of change in social identity over time that took place in all the Finnish cemeteries is described, and it is suggested that this pattern may be one that was shared by other immigrants to the western plains. A fuller understanding is developed of the immigrant experience, the nature of ethnicity, the factors affecting social identity, and the processes of cultural change in the settlement of Canada's prairie region.
DegreeMaster of Arts (M.A.)
DepartmentArchaeology and Anthropology
SupervisorKennedy, Margaret A.
CommitteeMeyer, David A.; Foley, Christopher M.; Waiser, William
Copyright DateJune 2012