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dc.contributor.advisorFarrell, Richard E.en_US
dc.contributor.advisorBélanger, Nicolasen_US
dc.creatorEns, Joelen_US
dc.date.accessioned2013-01-03T22:34:24Z
dc.date.available2013-01-03T22:34:24Z
dc.date.created2012-09en_US
dc.date.issued2012-11-21en_US
dc.date.submittedSeptember 2012en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10388/ETD-2012-09-762en_US
dc.description.abstractThe cultivation of willow (Salix spp.) is being investigated as a potential feedstock for biomass energy in the Canadian prairies. For this purpose, and despite willow’s high nutrient and water demand, high rates of productivity can ideally be achieved and maintained while minimizing inputs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, plantations of Salix purpurea ‘Hotel’ grown at seven sites across Canada—encompassing a large climate gradient and a variety of soils—provided an opportunity to assess the impacts of site quality on biomass production. Soil and climate variables as well as internal measures of nutrition and water stress were correlated with harvested biomass via linear, non-linear and multiple linear regression. Soil at nine sites were compared to reference sites in order to examine the effects of willow plantation establishment on soil nutrient pools and GHG efflux. The effects of initial nutrient concentration and growth rates on change were also examined. Greenhouse gas efflux (CO2, CH4, N2O) was directly measured using the vented chamber method at two of the sites. Lastly, a new method for measuring standing biomass via ground based digital imaging was developed and validated. Total elemental composition of soil, in particular the presence of Ca, was found to have the greatest correlation with willow productivity (r = 0.89, P < 0.01). Surprisingly, precipitation was not the dominant control for the majority of the sites. Nutritionally, N (r = 0.44, P < 0.01 total soil N) and K (r = 0.52, P < 0.01 foliar K) were dominant for increasing willow productivity although both N (P < 0.05) and K (P < 0.10) were depleted from the previous land use with willow plantation establishment. This indicates increasing nutrient deficiencies of N and K may be become problematic in future rotations for maintaining productivity. Carbon was consistently diminished in the upper 20 cm of soil (P < 0.05) regardless of previous conditions or productivity although previous land use is a contributing factor with less depletion on cultivated soils. However, soil CO2 emissions were greatest under larger trees indicating increased C cycling with increasing productivity. Seasonal differences in N2O emissions and CH4 consumption from traditional agriculture and mature tree stands were not detected. The calcareous soils common in the Canadian prairies provide opportunity for willow production, though fertilization with N and K may be required to sustain adequate growth.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.subjectWillowen_US
dc.subjectSalix purpurea 'Hotel'en_US
dc.subjectsite qualityen_US
dc.subjectsite indexen_US
dc.subjectwillow nutritionen_US
dc.subjectland useen_US
dc.subjectsoil nutrient poolsen_US
dc.subjectgreenhouse gasesen_US
dc.subjectCO2en_US
dc.subjectCH4en_US
dc.subjectN2Oen_US
dc.subjectbiomass estimationen_US
dc.titleShort rotation culture of willow clones across Canada : growth requirements and implications for soil nutrients and greenhouse gas balancesen_US
thesis.degree.departmentSoil Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineSoil Scienceen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Saskatchewanen_US
thesis.degree.levelDoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)en_US
dc.type.materialtexten_US
dc.type.genreThesisen_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberVan Rees, Kenen_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberJohnston, Marken_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberBai, Yuguagen_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberKnight, Joan D.en_US


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