STRATEGIES TO INCREASE HIGHLY-UNSATURATED N-3 FATTY ACIDS IN RAINBOW TROUT FED VEGETABLE OILS
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A series of experiments were conducted to examine the effect of petroselinic acid, found in coriander oil, on fillet, hepatocyte and whole body FA composition and Δ6 desaturase gene expression in hepatocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed vegetable oil (VO) based diets containing no fishmeal (FM) or fish oil (FO). In the first experiment, rainbow trout were fed one of eight diets containing fish, flax, canola or Camelina sativa oil with or without coriander oil. Coriander oil in the diet increased concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3, P < 0.05) in the fillet. There was a trend to increased 20:5n-3 + 22:6n-3/20:4n-6 ratios when coriander oil was added to the diet (P = 0.067). The second trial set out to investigate the effects of varied levels of coriander oil in canola oil based diets, on i) the capacity of rainbow trout hepatocytes to desaturate, elongate and esterify [1-14C] α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA) and [1-14C] linoleic acid (18:2n-6, LA), ii) reducing the production of 20:4n-6 in hepatocytes and iii) gene expression. This experiment demonstrated a significant increase in 22:6n-3 (P = 0.011) and a decrease 20:4n-6 (P = 0.023) in rainbow trout hepatocytes. Furthermore, there was a three-fold decrease in acetate for the [1-14C] 18:2n-6 and nearly a two-fold increase for the [1-14C] 18:3n-3 substrate when coriander was added at increasing levels, illustrating an increase in peroxisomal β-oxidation. Relative gene expression of ∆6 desaturase decreased with addition of coriander oil at the 0.5 inclusion level of coriander oil. The final experiment was conducted to determine if bypassing the first ∆6 desaturase and rate-limiting step in the n-3 FA pathway causes increased conversion of stearidonic acid (SDA; 18:4n-3) to 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Rainbow trout were fed one of six diets containing either fish, conventional linseed (flax), or SDA enriched linseed oil (LO) with and without coriander oil. Inclusion of coriander oil did not affect any growth or feed intake parameters of rainbow trout. However, the addition of coriander oil caused a significant increase in whole body 22:6n-3 and 20:4n-6 concentrations in fish fed SDA enriched LO with coriander oil (SDA+C) compared to fish fed conventional linseed oil (LO). These results suggest that petroselinic acid, found in coriander oil, has the ability to influence FA bioconversion of the n-3 and n-6 FA pathway thereby increasing 22:6n-3 and possibly 20:5n-3 in rainbow trout and reducing ARA when fed VO-based diets. Furthermore, it seems as though petroselinic acid causes improved bioconversion to 22:6n-3 when the first ∆6 desaturase is bypassed. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism of action that petroselinic acid has on FA bioconversion.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
DepartmentAnimal and Poultry Science
CommitteeBuchanan, Fiona; Reaney, Martin; Niyogi, Som; Mutsvangwa, Tim; Vandenberg, Grant
Copyright DateFebruary 2013
rainbow trout, EPA, DHA, coriander oil, vegetable oil