Encapsulation of flaxseed oil within modified lentil protein isolate matrices
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The overarching goal of this research was to formulate an encapsulated powder using a modified lentil protein isolate-maltodextrin mixture to encapsulate flaxseed oil by freeze drying. The primary objectives were: a) to examine the physicochemical and emulsifying properties of lentil protein isolates with different degrees of hydrolysis; b) to design and test the physicochemical properties of encapsulated flaxseed oil using a wall material with native, heat treated and partially hydrolyzed lentil proteins in combination with maltodextrin; and c) test the oxidative stability of encapsulated flaxseed oil with the capsule design with the lowest surface oil and highest encapsulation efficiency versus free oil. During the first study, the physicochemical and emulsifying properties of lentil protein isolates (LPI) were investigated as a function of their degree of hydrolysis (DH of 4, 9 and 20%) following exposure to trypsin/heat. Interfacial tension, surface characteristics (charge and hydrophobicity) and intrinsic fluorescence were determined and related to changes in the emulsification activity (EAI) and stability indices (ESI) of unhydrolyzed (u-LPI) and hydrolyzed LPI (h-LPI) in a flaxseed oil-water emulsion. Most importantly surface hydrophobicity declined from ~30 to ~24 for the u-LPI and h-LPI (DH 4-20%), respectively. The changes in physicochemical properties induced by hydrolysis had a detrimental effect on EAI and ESI values, which declined from ~51 to ~47 m2 g-1 and ~12 to ~ 11 min for u-LPI and h-LPI (DH 4-20%), respectively. In the second study, the physicochemical properties of encapsulated flaxseed oil within lentil protein-based maltodextrin microcapsules were investigated using native (n-LPI), pre-treated (heated, un-hydrolyzed (u-LPI); and heated, hydrolyzed (h-LPI)) lentil protein isolates and as a function of oil load (10.0, 20.0 and 30.0% of total solids). The moisture, water activity, surface oil and encapsulation efficiency (EE) were assessed, along with droplet size and emulsion morphology. Light microscopy imaging of the emulsions, showed that the h-LPI had slightly larger oil droplets than the n-LPI and u-LPI, which both appeared similar. Microcapsules prepared from h-LPI showed significantly higher surface oil and lower EE than both the n-LPI and u-LPI materials. The microcapsules prepared using n-LPI with 10.0% oil loading were found to have the lowest surface oil content (~3.7%) and highest EE (~62.8%) for all formulations, and were subjected to an oxidative storage stability test over a 30 d period vs. free oil. The encapsulation process however induced autooxidation leading the production of a greater amount of primary oxidative products than free oil. Findings indicate that future studies are necessary to enhance the stability of the flaxseed oil through the encapsulation process.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
DepartmentFood and Bioproduct Sciences
SupervisorNickerson, Michael T.; Low, Nicholas H.
CommitteeTanaka, Takuji; Tyler, Robert T.
Copyright DateMarch 2013