Nitrogen-doped DLC deposition by hot filament and inductively coupled plasma sputtering for biomedical applications
Esmaeili Khatir, Sepehr
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The heart is one of the most important organs of the human body and cardiovascular diseases remain the biggest cause of deaths worldwide. Today, due to the aging of the population and the growing demand for cardiovascular implants, improving the performance of artificial surfaces of vascular prostheses is highly desired. The common material for fabricating prostheses, such as stents used to remedy narrow and weak arteries, is Fluorocarbon polymers or expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE, Gore-tex). Although these polymers are well known for chemical inertness, thermal stability and low friction, they can cause early thrombosis (forming clot) and coagulation in blood vessels and require periodic replacement. Modifying the surface properties of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) by coating with carbon-based materials may improve its blood compatibility. Carbon-based coatings have properties similar to biomedical components, such as low friction, bioinertness, high wear resistance and exceptional hardness. Plasma processing methods are commonly used for coating thin films on various materials including carbon-based components. Plasma-based processes are also widely used in the aerospace, automotive, steel and biomedical industries. For example, extending the lifetime of surgically implanted hip joints and cutting tools are biomedical and industrial applications of plasma-based material processing respectively. Plasma-assisted deposition techniques are commonly used for carbon-based coating including nitrogen-doped amorphous carbon (a-C) films. In this thesis, PTFE samples with different thickness and roughness characteristics are used as substrates and diamond-like carbon (DLC) is deposited on them by simultaneous plasma-assisted sputtering and chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Hot filament plasma and ICP (Inductively coupling plasma) are used to coat DLC on PTFE and silicon (Si) substrates under various plasma conditions. The latter is the first report on the techniques to coat DLC by ICP plasma sputtering. This new technique (ICP-sputtering) is developed to improve low deposition rate and high temperature deposition of previous method (Hot filament plasma sputtering). Advantageous of this new developed method (ICP-sputtering) are discussed and compared with the previous method in this thesis. Various amount of nitrogen is introduced to the plasma chambers and the effect of nitrogen dopant is also studied using different characterization techniques for chemical, electronic and morphological properties of coated films. sp2 and sp3 contents were also estimated in amorphous carbon (a-C) and nitrogenated amorphous carbon (a-CN) films. Characterization techniques used for in this thesis are including SEM (scanning electron microscopy), AFM (atomic force microscopy), Raman spectroscopy, XAS (x-ray absorption spectroscopy), XES (x-ray emission spectroscopy), XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and XRD (x-ray diffraction).
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
DepartmentPhysics and Engineering Physics
SupervisorXiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira
CommitteeBradley, Michael P.; Tanaka, Kaori; Niu, Catherine H.
Copyright DateSeptember 2013
plasma, sputtering, DLC, PTFE, nitrogen doping, blood compatibility, Raman, AFM, XPS, XAS, XES