Iron bioavailability in low phytate pea
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Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have high nutritional value but also contain phytate which can inhibit the absorption and utilization of nutrients. Phytate is the main storage form of phosphorus in the seeds but chelates Fe, Zn and some other micronutrients and is not well digested by monogastrics. Peas with pigmented seed coats contain polyphenols which also have anti-nutritional properties. To increase the nutritional value of field pea seeds, two low phytate lines (1-150-81 and 1-2347-144) containing higher inorganic phosphorus concentration (IN-P) and lower phytate-phosphorus concentration (PA-P) than the normal phytate varieties were developed from CDC Bronco in previous research. The objectives of this research were 1) to determine the effect of genotype and environment on iron bioavailability in a set of five pea varieties differing in phytate concentration and iron concentration using in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture bioassay; 2) to determine the effect of seed coats on iron bioavailability by testing whole seeds compared to dehulled seeds in varieties differing in seed coat pigmentation using in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture bioassay; 3) to determine the inheritance of iron bioavailability in field pea by evaluating recombinant inbred lines differing in phytate concentration using in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture bioassay; 4) to determine the effects of pea with the low phytate trait on body weight and hemoglobin concentration of chickens. Iron concentration (FECON) did not differ significantly between normal and low phytate varieties. Iron bioavailability (FEBIO) of the two low-phytate lines was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher than that of the three normal phytate varieties, and growing environment also had a significant effect on FEBIO. Peas with pigmented seed coats contained 7 times lower FEBIO than peas with non-pigmented seed coat. The removal of the seed coat increased the FEBIO in peas with pigmented seed coat 5 to 6 times. From previous research on PR-15 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which were developed from a cross between low phytate line 1-2347-144 and a normal phytate variety CDC Meadow, it was found that PA-P was controlled by a single gene. FEBIO, in this study, was also found to follow a bimodal frequency distribution, characteristic of single gene control, and it was highly correlated with PA-P in the PR-15 lines. In vivo studies were used to evaluate iron absorption of chickens fed with low and normal phytate pea diets. The diets containing the low-phytate pea lines had no significant effect on chicken body weight and hemoglobin level, compared with the diets containing normal phytate pea varieties. An unexpected high FECON was discovered in the diets that was traced to the ingredients of limestone and dicalcium-phosphate which likely affected the experimental results.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
SupervisorWarkentin, Tom D.
CommitteeBett, Kirstin E.; Classen, Hank; Bai, Yuguang
Copyright DateApril 2014
Low phytate pea
Caco-2 cell culture
Pigmented seed coat
inheritance of iron bioavailability