|dc.description.abstract||The cable television (CATV) industry has grown significantly since its inception in the late 1940’s. Originally, a CATV network was comprised of several homes that were connected to community antennae via a network of coaxial cables. The only signal processing done was by an analogue amplifier, and transmission only occurred in one direction (i.e. from the antennae/head-end to the subscribers). However, as CATV grew in popularity, demand for services such as pay-per-view television increased, which lead to supporting transmission in the upstream direction (i.e. from subscriber to the head-end). This greatly increased the signal processing to include frequency diplexers.
CATV service providers began to expand the bandwidth of their networks in the late 90’s by switching from analogue to digital technology. In an effort to regulate the manufacturing of new digital equipment and ensure interoperability of products from different manufacturers, several cable service providers formed a non-for-profit consortium to develop a data-over-cable service interface specification (DOCSIS). The consortium, which is named CableLabs, released the first DOCSIS standard in 1997.
The DOCSIS standard has been upgraded over the years to keep up with increased consumer demand for large bandwidths and faster transmission speeds, particularly in the upstream direction. The latest version of the DOCSIS standard, DOCSIS 3.1, utilizes orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) technology to provide upstream transmission speeds of up to 1 Gbps. As cable service providers begin the process of upgrading their upstream receivers to comply with the new DOCSIS 3.1 standard, they require a means of testing the various functions that an upstream receiver may employ. It is convenient for service providers to employ cable modem (CM) plus channel emulator to perform these tests in-house during the product development stage. Constructing the emulator in digital technology is an attractive option for testing.
This thesis approaches digital emulation by developing a digital model of the CMs and upstream channel in a DOCSIS 3.1 network. The first step in building the emulator is to simulate its operations in MATLAB, specifically upstream transmission over the network. The MATLAB model is capable of simulating transmission from multiple CMs, each of which transmits using a specific “transmission mode.” The three transmission modes described in the DOCSIS 3.1 standard are included in the model. These modes are “traffic mode,” which is used during regular data transmission; “fine ranging mode,” which is used to perform fine timing and power offset corrections; and “probing” mode, which is presumably used for estimating the frequency response of the channel, but also is used to further correct the timing and power offsets.
The MATLAB model is also capable of simulating the channel impairments a signal may encounter when traversing the upstream channel. Impairments that are specific to individual CMs include integer and fractional timing offsets, micro-reflections, carrier phase offset (CPO), fractional carrier frequency offset (CFO), and network gain/attenuation. Impairments common to all CMs include carrier hum modulation, AM/FM ingress noise, and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN).
It is the hope that the MATLAB scripts that make up the simulation be translated to Verilog HDL to implement the emulator on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) in the near future. In the event that an FPGA implementation is pursued, research was conducted into designing efficient fractional delay filters (FDFs), which are essential in the simulation of micro-reflections. After performing an FPGA implementation cost analysis between various FDF designs, it was determined that a Kaiser-windowed sinc function FDF with roll-off parameter β = 3.88 was the most cost-efficient choice, requiring at total of 24 multipliers when implemented using an optimized structure.||en_US