Nutrient Transporter Inhibition Disrupts Mammary and Intestinal Polarized Epithelial Function
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The transporters primarily responsible for transporting important nutrients involved in energy metabolism have a wide substrate specificity setting up the potential for drug-nutrient transporter interactions. Pharmacological inhibition of nutrient transport across the lactating mammary and neonatal intestinal epithelial barrier can directly and indirectly affect growth and maturation of the developing neonate by either reducing the uptake of important nutrients by the neonate or by disrupting epithelial barrier integrity. My thesis focused on two transporters, OCTN2 and MCT1, expressed in immortalized intestinal and mammary epithelial cell cultures to assess the effects of their pharmacological inhibition on L-carnitine and butyrate flux, respectively, and polarized epithelial barrier integrity. Human colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) and bovine mammary (BME-UV) cell lines were grown into monolayers on 12-well tissue culture plates and subsequently exposed to the presence or absence of OCTN2 and MCT1 inhibitors for 6, 12, and 24 hours as well as 7 days. Failure to obtain a polarized mammary monolayer prevented the analysis of the direct effects of nutrient transport inhibition on nutrient flux forcing the focus on the indirect effects. To assess polarized epithelial barrier integrity, transepithelial electrical resistance and Lucifer yellow rejection rates were measured at each time point. No trend was noted between control and treated groups. To assess the acute and chronic effects of pharmacological exposure on polarized epithelial function, a limited appraisal of nutrient transporter expression and cellular homeostasis parameters was conducted. Following exposure at each time point, mRNA expression of OCTN1, OCTN2, MCT1, MCT2 and GADPH were measured using qPCR. Low mRNA yields resulted in an inability to assess transporter expression levels in the epithelial systems. Cellular homeostasis parameters were analyzed using the CellTiter-Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay, pH-Xtra Glycolysis Assay and MitoXpress Xtra Oxygen Consumption Assay. These assays measured ATP synthesis, glycolytic flux and cellular respiration, respectively. No significant trend was noted in ATP synthesis between control and treated groups. An upward trend in both glycolytic flux and cellular respiration was noted in treatment with both inhibitors in both cell lines. Complications in obtaining polarized monolayer forced the focus on the indirect affects, therefore, obtaining and utilizing a more accurate portrayal of the lactating mammary and neonatal intestinal epithelium is critical in answering this research question as both of these systems are highly synthetic and complex. By doing so, a more accurate representation of the effects of pharmacological inhibition of nutrient transporters essential for energy metabolism can be identified.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
DepartmentPharmacy and Nutrition
CommitteeSakharkar, Meena; Krol, Ed
Copyright DateFebruary 2016