## Two staggered finite circular cylinders in cross-flow

##### Abstract

Circular cylinders in cross-flow have been extensively studied in the last century. However, there are still many unsolved problems in this area, one of which is the flow structure around two staggered finite circular cylinders. This thesis mainly focuses on an experimental investigation of the vortex shedding characteristics of two staggered finite circular cylinders of equal diameter in cross-flow. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to measure the vortex shedding frequency at the mid-height of the two cylinders and along the height of the two cylinders. Two identical circular cylinders of aspect ratio AR = 9 were partially immersed in a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer, where the boundary layer thickness to cylinder height ratio at the location of the cylinders was δ/H = 0.4. The Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter was ReD = 2.4z x ~10⁴. Centre-to-centre pitch ratios of P/D = 1.125, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4 and 5 were examined and the incidence angle was incremented in small steps from ɑ = 0° to 180°. For each configuration of the cylinders, the vortex shedding frequency, represented in dimensionless form as the Strouhal number, St, was measured with a single-component hot-wire anemometer. Also, a seven-hole pressure probe was used to measure the time-averaged wake velocity field behind the cylinders at selected configurations in order to get a better understanding of the wake structure.The vortex shedding frequencies measured at the mid-height of the cylinders clearly showed the similarities and differences of vortex shedding between two staggered finite and infinite circular cylinders. The Strouhal number behavior of the two finite circular cylinders is generally similar to that of two infinite circular cylinders, but the values of St for the two finite cylinders were found for most cases to be smaller than the case of the infinite cylinders. The measurements of vortex shedding frequency along the heights of each finite cylinder revealed that, for most incidence angles, the value of the Strouhal number remains constant along the height of the cylinder, but a notable variation in the shape and strength of the vortex shedding peak along the heights of the cylinders is observed. Sharp and strong peaks in the power spectra are measured around the mid-height of the cylinder. Broader and weaker peaks are found both at the base of the cylinder and near the free end. At several particular configurations, the vortex shedding frequency changes along the height of the cylinder, caused by the varying flow pattern in the vertical direction. Wake measurements showed the velocity field behind the two finite circular cylinders arranged in tandem configurations of P/D = 1.125, 2 and 5. The experimental data revealed that the flow structure behind two finite circular cylinders arranged in a tandem configuration is much more complicated than that of the single finite circular cylinder. The downwash flow from the tip of the downstream cylinder is weaker due to the flow interaction between the free ends of two cylinders, and this downwash flow becomes stronger with increasing P/D. A similar trend happens to the vorticity of the tip vortex structures. However, the upwash flow behind the downstream cylinder is not strongly affected by the existence of the upstream cylinder.

##### Degree

Master of Science (M.Sc.)##### Department

Mechanical Engineering##### Program

Mechanical Engineering##### Supervisor

Sumner, David##### Committee

Mazurek, Kerry; Bugg, James D.; Bergstrom, Donald J.##### Copyright Date

2008##### Subject

Circular cylinders

Vortex shedding