Production of fuels and chemicals from biomass-derived oil and lard
Adebanjo, Adenike Omowunmi
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Biomass derived oil (BDO) reforming with CO2 was carried out at 800oC under atmospheric pressure in a tubular fixed bed vertical reactor packed with quartz particles. The feed gas was a mixture of CO2 and N2 at various compositions with a flow rate of 30 to 60 cm3/min. The BDO flow rate was 5 g/h. The product gas consisted mostly of H2, CO, CO2, CH4 and C2H4.The maximum production of synthesis gas (~76 mol%) was observed at a total carrier gas flow rate of 60 cm3/min and a mole fraction of CO2 in carrier gas of 0.1. Maximum hydrogen (42 mol%) and H2 to CO molar ratio (1.44) were obtained while using only N2 as the carrier gas at a flow rate of 50 cm3/min. In the range of residence time considered, CO2 was not consumed in BDO gasification at 800oC but helped to increase gas production at the expense of the char.Pyrolysis of lard was performed to produce a diesel-like liquid and a high heating value gaseous fuel. Lard was fed into the reactor at 5 g/h using N2 (10-70 cm3/min) as carrier gas. Two particle size ranges of quartz particles (0.7-1.4 and 1.7-2.4 mm) were used as reactor packing material. The liquid product essentially consisted of linear and cyclic alkanes and alkenes, aromatics, ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids. The maximum yield for diesel-like liquid product (37g/100g lard) was obtained at 600oC, residence time of 1.5 s and packing particle size of 1.7- 2.4 mm. The liquid product obtained at 600oC, carrier gas flow rate of 50 cm3/min and quartz packing particle size of 0.7-1.4 mm has a cetane index of 46, specific gravity of 0.86, a heating value of 40 MJ/kg and cloud and pour points of 10 and -18 respectively. The heating value of the product gas ranged between 68 and 165 MJ/m3. This study shows that there is a potential for producing diesel-like liquid from pyrolysis of lard. It also identifies the pyrolysis of animal fats as a source of high heating value gaseous fuel.Steam reforming of lard was performed at 500, 550, 600 and 800oC and at steam to lard mass ratios of 0.5 to 2.0. The maximum diesel-like liquid yield from the steam reforming process (39 g/100g of lard) was obtained at a steam to lard ratio of 1.5 and a temperature of 600oC. Higher cetane index (52) and lower viscosity (4.0 mPa.s at 40oC) were obtained by addition of steam. The net energy recovered from pyrolysis and steam reforming processes were 21.7and 21.9 kJ/g of lard respectively. Thus, the processes are energy efficient.In comparison, lard is a better feedstock for the production of hydrogen, char, high heating value gas and high H2/CO ratio than BDO. On the other hand, BDO is the preferred feedstock for the production of synthesis gas with H2/CO in the vicinity of 1.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
SupervisorDalai, Ajay K.
CommitteeWang, Hui; Torvi, David A.; Peng, Ding-Yu; Bakhshi, Narendra N.
Copyright DateJanuary 2005