Molecular characterization of 33K protein of bovine adenovirus type 3
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Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAdV-3) is a non-enveloped icosahedral particle which contains a double stranded DNA genome. The genome of BAdV-3 is organized into early, intermediate and late regions. The late region is organized into seven regions L1-L7 (Reddy et.al., 1998). The L6 region of late transcription unit of BAdV-3 encodes one of the non structural protein named 33K protein. The objective of the present study was to characterize the 33K protein and to identify the viral/cellular proteins involved in the interaction with 33K protein. The RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of spliced and unsliced mRNAs encoding 33K and 22K proteins respectively in BAdV-3 infected cells. The 33K and 22K proteins share a N-terminus region of 138 amino acids. To determine the specificity of these two proteins, rabbit polyclonal antiserum was raised against peptides representing unique C- terminal regions of the proteins. Anti-33Kp serum detected two major proteins of 42 kDa and 22 kDa and five minor proteins of 39kDa, 35kDa, 29kDa, 25kDa and 19kDa in BAdV-3 infected cells or 33K transfected cells. Similarly, anti-22Kp serum detected three proteins of 41kDa, 39kDa and 37kDa in BAdV-3 infected cells. However, a protein of 39kDa and 37kDa was detected in 22K (having splice sites removed) transfected cells. The 33K protein is predominantly localized to the nucleus of BAdV-3 infected cells and is involved in stimulating the transcription from major late promoter. Analysis of mutant 33K proteins demonstrated that amino acids 201-240 and amino acid 204-231 are required for nuclear localization and MLP transactivation. The adenovirus 33K protein appears to be a multifunctional protein performing different role in viral infection. Earlier study has shown that the 33K protein plays a role in viral capsid assembly and efficient capsid DNA interaction in BAdV-3 (Kulshreshtha et.al., 2004). The involvement of 33K protein in different steps of adenovirus replication may require protein protein interaction. Using 33K protein as bait in yeast two hybrid system, open reading frames (ORFs) of BAdV-3 were screened for the potential interactions with 33K protein. The 33K protein showed specific interactions with two late viral proteins- 100K and protein V (pV). The yeast two hybrid findings were validated by in vitro binding using in vitro synthesized transcription-translation products. It was demonstrated that the interaction of 33K with 100K and pV takes place during BAdV-3 infection. The stretch of amino acids 81-120 and 161-200 in 33K protein were involved in the interaction with pV and 100K protein. For screening the cellular interactions, the 33K protein was used as a bait to screen bovine retina cDNA library. The yeast two hybrid screening revealed that the 33K protein appears to interact with bovine presenilin-1-associated protein / mitochondrial carrier homolog 1 (BoPSAP / BoMtch1) and bovine microtubule associated protein (BoMAP). However, subsequent analysis by various in vitro and in vivo assays could only confirm the interaction between 33K protein and BoPSAP/BoMtch1. In addition, the 33K protein was also shown to be colocalized with BoPSAP in mitochondria. Based on these observations, it may be possible that 33K protein may play an anti-apoptotic by interacting with BoPSAP since the human homolog of PSAP has been known to induce apoptosis.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)