USE of The Common Sense Model and participants in cardiac rehabilitation exercise therapy: A prospective study
Anderson, Tara Jean
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This preliminary investigation utilized both a top-down theory (Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory: SET, 1997) and a bottom-up theory (Leventhal’s Common Sense Model: CSM, 1980) to examine the cognitions and exercise behavior of novice cardiac rehabilitation (CR) participants engaged in 3 months of standard CR treatment. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate if the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ,) as a reflection of the CSM, could classify CR novices relative to the strength of their illness perceptions. A further objective was to detect differences at baseline between the illness perception groups when evaluating SET variables and health-related outcomes that have been identified as important correlates of CR adherence. Additionally, the study proposed to determine differences between illness perception groups on adherence to recommended exercise therapy in CR. Lastly, differences between the groups on the assessed variables over the 3 month-rehabilitation period was examined. Forty-nine CR initiates were recruited. Participants were measured at 4 different time points over the 3-month initiation phase of CR. The IPQ, SF-36 (assessing health-related quality of life; HRQL,) and other social cognitive measures, including self-regulatory efficacy and positive and negative outcome expectations, were used to examine individuals. Participants completed measures at initiation of CR, after 2 weeks in CR, 6 weeks in CR and at the end of the 3-month initiate phase of CR. At onset of the program, cluster analysis successfully classified participants to weaker and stronger symptom-identity groups (i.e., illness perception groups). These groups were shown to be significantly different on the illness perceptions of identity, consequences and emotion. Upon initiation of CR, the classified groups were also significantly different on likelihood and value of negative outcome expectations, as well as physical and mental HRQL. At baseline, the group with stronger identity, consequences and emotion had higher negative outcome expectations and lower HRQL. In regards to adherence at the end of 3-months of CR, significant differences were found between the groups such that the group with stronger identity, consequences and emotion were less adherent to CR. This study was an initial exploration of the effectiveness of using the CSM along with SET. The findings offer insight into complementary use of top-down and bottom-up theoretical constructs to study psychological beliefs and adherence to exercise therapy in this rehabilitation setting.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
DepartmentCollege of Kinesiology
ProgramCollege of Kinesiology
SupervisorBrawley, Lawrence, R.
Common Sense Model