Body image in men : drive for muscularity and social influences, body image evaluation and investment, and psychological well-being
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Over the past decade, the study of male body image has increased considerably and substantial levels of body discontent among males have been reported. Accompanying this dissatisfaction is a rise in the documentation of the Drive for Muscularity (DFM), or the desire for increased lean muscle mass, in men. The current study had three objectives. The first was to identify theoretical variables associated with the DFM. The second was to examine body image evaluation and investment in relation to the DFM. The third was to explore the DFM and psychological well-being. Two-hundred fourteen men completed the study and multiple regressions were carried out to examine the various relations. Awareness and internalization of the male body ideal and universalistic social comparison accounted for 35% of the variance in the DFM. Body image investment, but not evaluation, accounted for 26% of the variance in the DFM. Regarding psychological well-being, the DFM accounted for an additional 23% of the variance in muscle pathology after controlling for levels of depression and self-esteem. Other notable findings included men’s self-reported intentions to use potentially unhealthy body change strategies to increase size and musculature in the future, and statistically significant associations between the DFM and self-esteem, social physique anxiety, and general worry. These results contribute to the growing literature on male body image and the implications for clinical practice with men presenting with body dissatisfaction are discussed.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
SupervisorMacGregor, Michael Wm.
CommitteeMorrison, Melanie A.; Kowalski, Kent; Elias, Lorin J.; Chartier, Brian M.
Copyright DateMarch 2007
body change strategies
male body image
drive for muscularity