Cut mark analysis of protohistoric bison remains from EfPm-27 utilizing the scanning electron microscope
Pollio, Cara Jean
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EfPm-27 is a Protohistoric bison pound and processing site located in Fish Creek Park in Calgary, Alberta. The site exhibited the presence of metal tools and macroscopically deceptive cut marks suggesting the potential for the presence of both metal and stone cut marks. Moulds of selected cut marks from the assemblage were made and examined with the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to verify or negate the use of metal tools for butchery at the site. SEM images of the cut mark moulds reveal micromorphology that is similar to experimental and published stone tool cut mark SEM images. No evidence for the use of metal tools for butchering was identified. Protohistoric sites research could benefit from the use of SEM analysis of cut marks to distinguish between stone and metal tool use. This would provide important secondary evidence for metal trade items in scenarios where such artifacts may be beyond recovery. Conversely, the presence of metal artifacts at a site does not necessarily imply that they were used for butchery and this assertion must be verified by the presence of metal cut marks.
DegreeMaster of Arts (M.A.)
SupervisorWalker, Ernest G.
CommitteePratt, Brian R.; Linnamae, Urve; Kennedy, Margaret A.
experimental tool marks
scanning electron microscopy