Characterization of the IIIa protein of porcine adenovirus type 3
Van Kessel, Jill Andrea
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The L1 region of the porcine adenovirus (PAdV)-3 genome encodes a protein of 622 amino acids named IIIa. Although it binds a neighboring group of nine (GON) hexons at the capsid level and cement the icosahedral shell that contains the viral DNA, little is known regarding its function with respect to viral life cycle. Moreover, the known location of IIIa protein in the capsid may help to express targeting ligands for altering the tropism of PAdV-3. The objective of this study was to characterize the IIIa protein of porcine adenovirus Type 3 (PAdV-3). In order to characterize the IIIa protein, polyclonal antisera were raised in rabbits against different regions of IIIa. Anti-IIIa sera detected a specific protein of 70 kDa in PAdV-3 infected cells using Western blot assay. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that IIIa is predominantly localized in the nucleus of PAdV-3 infected cells. Analysis of PAdV-3 IIIa using antibodies specific for N- and C- terminal domains of the protein suggested that although the N-terminus and C-terminal domains of IIIa are immunogenic, they are not exposed on the surface of PAdV-3 virions. These results were further confirmed by our inability to isolate a chimeric PAdV-3 virion containing a heterologous protein fused to the N-terminus or C-terminus of IIIa. Functional analysis suggested that IIIa may transactivate the major late promoter and down regulate the early region (E) 1A promoter. In order to locate the domains of IIIa responsible for different functions, in-frame deleted/truncated forms of IIIa were constructed. Analysis of the deleted/truncated forms of IIIa suggested that a) the sequences located between amino acids 273-410 and between amino acids 410-622b) affect the nuclear localization and transactivation function respectively.Since protein- protein interactions are important for the biological functions of the protein, we determined the interaction of PAdV-3 IIIa with other viral proteins. IIIa was found to interact with DNA binding protein (DBP), E3 13.7 kDa protein, hexon, fiber, and pIX. These results suggest that PAdV3 IIIa may do more in the viral life cycle than merely act as cement between the hexons to maintain capsid stability and may actually be involved in regulating early to late gene transcription at appropriate stages during viral infection.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
SupervisorTikoo, Suresh K.; Babiuk, Lorne A.
Copyright DateMarch 2006