Delivery of polynucleotides and oligonucleotides for improving immune responses to vaccines
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Vaccination is one of the major achievements of modern medicine. As a result of vaccination, diseases such as polio and measles have been controlled and small pox has been eliminated. However, despite these successes there are still many diseases of microbial origin that cause tremendous suffering because there are no vaccines or the vaccines available are inadequate. The development of DNA based vaccines and immunostimulatory CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs) as adjuvants offer new possibilities for developing new vaccines. The objectives of this research were to improve the delivery of polynucleotides and oligonucleotides to enhance their potency and to evaluate the feasibility of non-invasive methods for the delivery of vaccines through the skin in order to improve the safety and the ease of administration of human and veterinary vaccines. The results demonstrated that topical administration of plasmids in a lipid-based delivery system (biphasic lipid vesicles [Biphasix™]) resulted in gene expression in the draining lymph nodes, as well as induction of antigen specific immune responses in mice. The use of electroporation significantly enhanced both gene expression and immune responses to DNA vaccines in pigs. Prior treatment with electroporation enhanced immune responses to both protein and DNA vaccines indicating that both gene expression and tissue damage are important mechanisms that electroporation uses to enhance immune responses. In addition, the formulation of CpG ODNs in biphasic lipid vesicles (BiphasixTM) called Vaccine-Targeting Adjuvant (VTA) enhanced immune response to protein antigens following systemic and mucosal administration.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
CommitteeTalbot, B.; Remillard, Alfred J. (Fred); Nazarali, Adil J.; Middleton, Dorothy M.; Foldvari, Marianna; Ellis, John A.; Baca-Estrada, Maria E.; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia
Copyright DateApril 2003