Leadership styles of principals in Native schools in Saskatchewan
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The purpose of this study was to describe perceptions held for the leadership styles of principals in native schools in Saskatchewan. In describing the leadership styles of principals in native schools, the writer sought principals' own perceptions, the perceptions of their subordinates and the perceptions of their superordinates using the "Situational Leadership Model" developed by Hersey and Blanchard (1982). The study was further designed to describe the leadership styles of principals as they varied according to the principals' demographic variables of training, experience, age and size of school. The population for the study consisted of all the principals, teachers and superintendents in the Saskatchewan native school system. Two questionnaires were utilized: (1) The demographic data sheet which collected information on respondents' training, experience, age, size of school and jurisdictional control, and (2) the Leader Effectiveness and Adaptability Description Questionnaire. The latter consisted of the Lead-Self and the Lead-Other. The Lead-Self gathered information on the principals' own perceptions, while the Lead-Other collected subordinates' and superordinates' perceptions. The findings indicated that responding principals perceived themselves as having a predominant style of Selling (S2), while subordinates and superordinates perceived principals' predominant styles to be Selling (S2) and Participating (S3) respectively. That is, principals and subordinates perceived principals as employing a structured approach to leadership, while principals were perceived by superordinates as utilizing a more democratic approach to leadership. Principals saw themselves as having a limited "style-range" while subordinates and superordinates were consistent in ascribing a wide "style-range" to principals. With respect to demographic variables, principals' leadership styles did not vary markedly in respect to these variables. However, principals with less professional training were perceived to have a more structured style than those principals with more professional training. Regardless of administrative experience, principals saw themselves as having a limited "style-range." Subordinates perceived younger principals to be more democratic in their decision-making process, while older principals were seen as more structured. In respect to size of school, superordinates perceived principals in smaller schools as having a more participative style, while principals, in larger schools were perceived as having a more structured style.