A lithic analysis of the Jackson site (DiMe-17) in southwestern Manitoba
Belsham, Leanne J.
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The Jackson site (DiMe-17) is a Late Precontact site located in the Lauder Sand Hills of southwestern Manitoba. Primarily a bison kill and processing locale for Vickers focus people, this winter occupation has a calibrated radiocarbon date range between A.D. 1427 and A.D. 1683. Although a small Blackduck component was evident in the southwest corner of the site, the Vickers focus occupation was the dominant presence at this site and is the focus of this thesis. Archaeological investigations between 1994 and 1997 yielded a sample from 36 one square metres excavation units and 67 shovel tests pits. As part of an extensive investigation of Plains Woodland occupation of the region over the past 1200 years, excavation of the site served to provide additional information about Vickers focus occupation within the Makotchi-Ded Dontipi locale. This study offers a lithic analysis that encompasses the debitage and tools with an emphasis on the spatial distribution of the lithic materials. This seeks to assess the validity of the proposed activity areas at the Jackson site. The lithic analysis verified the presence of habitation and kill areas. Lithics from the east-central part of the site indicated processing activities as opposed to a large midden area associated with faunal processing as initially proposed in earlier studies. Late Side-notched projectile point types dominate the assemblage from the site. Plains and Prairie Side-notched point styles are affiliated with the Mortlach phase, Central Plains Tradition, Mississippian Tradition, and Middle Missouri Tradition. The Vickers focus people may have interacted and exchanged lithic materials with these groups. The Vickers focus people utilized exotic (Knife River flint, Tongue River silicified sediment, obsidian) as well as local materials (chalcedony, chert) to manufacture their tools.