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dc.contributor.advisorSingh, Baljiten_US
dc.creatorAharonson-Raz, Karinen_US
dc.date.accessioned2008-10-23T13:56:05Zen_US
dc.date.accessioned2013-01-04T05:06:34Z
dc.date.available2009-10-24T08:00:00Zen_US
dc.date.available2013-01-04T05:06:34Z
dc.date.created2008-10en_US
dc.date.issued2008-10-01en_US
dc.date.submittedOctober 2008en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10388/etd-10232008-135605en_US
dc.description.abstractABSTRACT Heaves is triggered by exposure to dust and its components, such as endotoxin, and is characterized by clinical signs such as coughing, decreased exercise tolerance, difficulty breathing and abnormal lung sounds which are due to bronchoconstriction and accumulation of neutrophils in the airways. Pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) are believed to increase horses’ sensitivity to endotoxemia-induced lung inflammation. The first objective of this study was to investigate a hitherto unknown role of PIMs in equine heaves. I used mouldy hay (MH) to induce heaves and gadolinium chloride (GC) to deplete PIMs in order to compare responses between non-treated and GC-treated heaves horses. A modified randomized crossover study (2X2 factorial) was conducted in which mares (N=9) were exposed to 4 different treatments: alfalfa cubes (Cb), alfalfa cubes + GC (Cb-GC), mouldy hay (MH) and MH + GC (MH-GC). Each treatment was followed by broncholaveolar lavage (BAL). MH was fed for 7 days to induce heaves followed by Cb for 21 days to achieve remission, whereas the treatments in which heaves was not induced (Cb; Cb-GC), the cubes were fed prior to the BAL and for 14 days after the BAL to allow recovery from the BAL procedure. BAL fluids were processed to investigate total cell, neutrophil and alveolar macrophage concentrations. In addition, TNFá protein levels as well as TNFá, IL-8, and TLR4 mRNA expression in BAL cells were assessed in order to infer on their activation state. Data showed higher concentration of dust (3X), endotoxin (20X), and endotoxin per milligram of dust (7X) in MH compared to the Cb environment. Clinical scores and neutrophil concentrations in BAL were higher when mares received MH compared to MH and GC (MH-GC). Real time reverse transcriptase PCR revealed a significant lower expression of IL-8 and TLR4 mRNA in BAL cells from MH-GC mares compared to MH. TNFá mRNA expression as well as protein concentration were not affected by the different treatments. In vitro secondary LPS challenge significantly increased IL-8 mRNA expression in cells from MH treatment compared to without LPS, but not in the MH-GC treatment. TLR4 expression was not affected by the secondary challenge. Although secondary LPS challenge increased expression of TNFá mRNA and protein, the differences among treatment groups were not meaningful. In conclusion, PIM depletion attenuates clinical scores, migration of inflammatory cells into the alveolar space and expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in BAL cells of heaves horses. The observations on the role of PIMs in heaves in horses prompted me to examine the occurrence of PIMs in human lungs. I found a trend for higher numbers of septal macrophages in autopsied lungs from human patients who died of non-pulmonary pathologies compared to those having either COPD or asthma. If these septal macrophages indeed represent the PIMs, this finding is contrary to existing belief that humans, unlike horses, do not have PIMs.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.subjectRecurrent Airway Obstructionen_US
dc.subjectGadolinium chlorideen_US
dc.subjectHeavesen_US
dc.subjectPulmonary Intravascular Macrophages (PIMs)en_US
dc.subjectHorseen_US
dc.titleThe role of pulmonary intravascular macrophages in the development of heaves in horsesen_US
thesis.degree.departmentVeterinary Biomedical Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineVeterinary Biomedical Sciencesen_US
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Saskatchewanen_US
thesis.degree.levelMastersen_US
thesis.degree.nameMaster of Science (M.Sc.)en_US
dc.type.materialtexten_US
dc.type.genreThesisen_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberLohmann, Katharinaen_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberTownsend, Hughen_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberGordon, Johnen_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberHiebert, Lindaen_US


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