Subcritical water extraction of antioxidant compounds from canola meal
Hassas Roudsari, Majid
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Antioxidant compounds were extracted from canola meal by subcritical water extraction (SWE), hot water (80°C) extraction and ethanolic (95%) extraction. The highest extract yields were obtained with SWE at 160°C, and the lowest with ethanolic extraction (SWE 160°C > SWE sequential > SWE 135°C > SWE 110°C = hot water extraction > ethanolic extraction). Ethanolic extracts exhibited the highest total phenolics contents and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values on a per gram of extract basis, and hot water extracts, the lowest (ethanolic extraction > SWE 110°C > SWE 160°C > hot water extraction). Extraction pressure (3.44-6.89 MPa) had no effect on the yields, total phenolics contents or TEAC values of extracts from SWE. The use of buffered water (pH 2-8) for SWE increased extract yield but had adverse effects on the total phenolics contents and TEAC values of extracts. No increase in efficacy of SWE at 110 or 160°C was observed at extraction times longer than 25-30 min. The total phenolics contents and antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by the total phenolics assay, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) scavenging method, TEAC method, the β-carotene-linoleic acid (linoleate) model system, the reducing power assay and the stripped oil model system. Ethanolic extracts exhibited the highest total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities on a per gram of extract basis. Subcritical water extraction at 160°C exhibited the highest total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities on a per gram of meal basis. Results from the total phenolics assay and the antioxidant capacity assays were significantly correlated, with the exception of those from the stripped oil model system.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
DepartmentApplied Microbiology and Food Science
ProgramApplied Microbiology and Food Science
SupervisorChang, Peter R.; Tyler, Robert T. (Bob)
CommitteeTabil, Lope G.; Shand, Phyllis J.; Pegg, Ronald B.