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The Development of Sustainable Hydrometallurgical Processes for the Recovery of Precious Metal

dc.contributor.advisorAlam, Shafiq
dc.contributor.advisorKipouros, Georges
dc.contributor.committeeMemberTabil, Lope
dc.contributor.committeeMemberZhang, Lifeng
dc.contributor.committeeMemberBaik, Oon-Doo
dc.contributor.committeeMemberOdeshi, Akindele
dc.creatorAyeni, Afolabi Fatai
dc.creator.orcid0000-0002-4453-4675 2020
dc.description.abstractThe study investigates the utilization of cedar wood bark as bioadsorbent for the adsorption and simultaneous precipitation of gold as flakes. This is with a view to establishing the electrochemical study of the adsorption and evaluate pre-treated cedar wood bark as possible adsorbent for gold in various solutions. The research plan for this project is divided into two parts. Part one focuses on understanding the adsorption of gold using the cedar wood bark as adsorbent. The second part focuses on the electrochemical study of the redox reaction during adsorption process using cyclic voltammetry technique. Synthetic solution of gold is prepared with dissolution of gold (III) chloride in hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulfate and sodium thiourea lixiviants. Cedar wood bark is pre-treated with dilute and concentrated sulfuric acid under various experimental conditions to obtain three bioadsorbents, dilute-air dried (D-AD), concentrated washed-air dried (CW-AD) and concentrated not washed-oven dried (CNW-OD). The gold solutions are electrochemically tested for redox reaction using cyclic voltammetry (CV) techniques. One-point adsorption test is carried out on the various gold solutions to determine the suitable samples for the research. The outcome of the CV experiment indicates that redox reaction of gold in hydrochloric acid medium is easily measured through the anodic and cathodic peak formation. The one-point adsorption test favors the use of D-AD as adsorbent in acidic gold solution with percentage adsorption of 99.999%. Hence, the research is narrowed down to the use of D-AD adsorbent and acidic gold solution. Solid/liquid ratio and hydrochloric acid concentration tests indicate that 1.5 and 0.5 M, respectively, are the best suitable for the research. For the kinetic study of the adsorption process at temperatures of 298, 303 and 313 K in 96 hours, pseudo-second order model has determination coefficients of 0.988, 0.996 and 0.998, respectively, while the pseudo-first order model has determination coefficients of 0.91, 0.77 and 0.62 at those three different temperatures. Hence, the adsorption process follows the pseudo-second order model. The activation energy from the pseudo-second order rate constant indicates that the process is chemisorption with a value of 59.86 kJ/mol. The adsorption isotherm is found to follow Freundlich isotherm model, which might have favored the formation of gold flakes on the adsorbent. The CV experiment shows the disappearance of anodic peaks as the adsorption of gold progresses, which is an indication of reduction reaction synonymous to adsorption process. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instruments were used to determine the presence of gold precipitates and the spectra obtained from the two experiments confirm the presence of gold. In conclusion, the study established cedar wood bark as a potential source of biomass for adsorption of gold (III) ions from acidic chloride solution, and that cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique was successfully used to examine the adsorption process.
dc.subjectcyclic voltametry.
dc.titleThe Development of Sustainable Hydrometallurgical Processes for the Recovery of Precious Metal
dc.type.materialtext and Biological Engineering Engineering of Saskatchewan of Philosophy (Ph.D.)