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HIGH-PERFORMANCE PERIODIC ANTENNAS WITH HIGH ASPECT RATIO VERTICAL FEATURES AND LARGE INTERCELL CAPACITANCES FOR MICROWAVE APPLICATIONS

Date

2015-10-23

Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title

Publisher

ORCID

Type

Degree Level

Doctoral

Abstract

Modern communications systems are evolving rapidly to address the demand for data exchange, a fact which imposes stringent requirements on the design process of their RF and antenna front-ends. The most crucial pressure on the antenna front-end is the need for miniaturized design solutions while maintaining the desired radiation performance. To satisfy this need, this thesis presents innovative types of periodic antennas, including electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) antennas, which are distinguished in two respects. First, the periodic cells contain thick metal traces, contrary to the conventional thin-trace cells. Second, such thick traces contain very narrow gaps with very tall sidewalls, referred to as high aspect ratio (HAR) gaps. When such cells are used in the structure of the proposed periodic antennas, the high capacitance of HAR gaps decreases the resonance frequency, mitigates conduction loss, and thus, yields considerably small high efficiency antennas. For instance, one of the sample antenna designs with only two EBG cells offers a very small XYZ volume of 0.25λ×0.28λ×0.037λ with efficiency of 83%. Also, a circularly polarized HAR EBG antenna is presented which has a footprint as small as 0.26λ×0.29λ and efficiency as high as 94%. The main analysis method developed in this thesis is a combination of numerical and mathematical analyses and is referred to as HFSS/Bloch method. The numerical part of this method is conducted using a High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS), and the mathematical part is based on the classic Bloch theory. The HFSS/Bloch method acts as the mainstay of the thesis and all designs are built upon the insight provided by this method. A circuit model using transmission line (TL) theory is also developed for some of the unit cells and antennas. The HFSS/Bloch perspective results in a HAR EBG TL with radiation properties, a fragment of which (2 to 6 cells) is introduced as a novel antenna, the self-excited EBG resonator antenna (SE-EBG-RA). Open (OC) and short circuited (SC) versions of this antenna are studied and the inherently smaller size of the SC version is demonstrated. Moreover, the possibility of employing the SE-EBG-RA as the element of a series-fed array structure is investigated and some sample high-efficiency, flat array antennas are rendered. A microstrip antenna is also developed, the structure of which is composed of 3×3 unit cells and shows fast-wave behaviors. Most antenna designs are resonant in nature; however, in one case, a low-profile efficient leaky-wave antenna with scanning radiation pattern is proposed. Several antenna prototypes are fabricated and tested to validate the analyses and designs. As the structures are based on tall metal traces, two relevant fabrication methods are considered, including CNC machining and deep X-ray lithography (DXRL). Hands-on experiments provide an outlook of possible future DXRL fabricated SE-EBG-RAs.

Description

Keywords

Antenna, Bloch Theory, Circuit Model, Efficiency, Electromagnetic Bandgap, High Aspect Ratio, Periodic, Small Antennas

Citation

Degree

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Department

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Program

Electrical Engineering

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