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Lincomycin and Spectinomycin : persistence in liquid hog manure and their transport from manure-amended soil



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Antimicrobials administered to livestock can be excreted up to 80% in the feces and urine. Liquid swine manure from confined animal feeding operations is generally retained in lagoon storage until it is applied as a nutrient source to cropland. Thus, the applied manure becomes a possible source of antimicrobials to aquatic ecosystems. Veterinary antimicrobials have been detected in surface and ground waters in Canada, the United States and Europe, however, their environmental fate is not well known. Lincomycin and spectinomycin are two antimicrobials administered as a mixture to swine in the prairie region of Canada for the prevention of post-weaning diarrhea. In order to assess the potential for contamination of prairie wetlands, concentrations of both antimicrobials were monitored in the liquid manure from the nursery area of a commercial-scale barn during a 5-week study, and their persistence during simulated manure storage investigated. The potential for transport of lincomycin and spectinomycin to surface waters via surface runoff and to leach to groundwater was also assessed. This was achieved by monitoring manure-amended soil, simulated rainfall runoff, snow melt runoff and groundwater over a two-year period at two study sites in Saskatchewan, Canada following fall application of liquid swine manure from two commercial barns to crop and pasture land. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantitate these antimicrobials in all matrix extracts. In the nursery area of a commercial-scale barn, concentrations of lincomycin and spectinomycin in the cumulating liquid manure at the end of the study were equivalent to 32 and 3.0%, respectively, of doses administered in the feed. In a laboratory study, using fortified liquid manure, concentrations of both antimicrobials showed a rapid initial decrease during simulated lagoon storage, followed by a slower dissipation over a period of 5 months. The average time required for 50% dissipation of lincomycin was greater than one year (365 d) and was approximately 90 d for spectinomycin. Lincomycin concentrations in soil (46.3 to 117 µg kg-1) collected immediately after fall manure application, decreased to non-detectable levels by mid-summer the following year. Lincomycin was present in simulated rainfall runoff (0.1 to 2.7 µg L-1) immediately after manure application with similar concentrations present in snow meltrunoff the following spring. Concentrations in groundwater were generally



liquid swine manure, antimicrobials, runoff, dissipation, LC-MS/MS



Master of Science (M.Sc.)






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