ADVANCED REFLECTION SEISMIC STUDIES OF PHASE I WEYBURN CO2 SEQUESTRATION MONITORING
Three-dimensional, time-lapse (TL) reflection seismic datasets and well logs collected for Phase I CO2 sequestration project in Weyburn oilfield (southern Saskatchewan, Canada) are utilized for developing new approaches in three research areas: 1) estimation of seismic source waveforms, 2) evaluation of TL acoustic impedance (AI) variations for monitoring CO2 propagation, and 3) rigorous modeling of seismic waves propagating through finely layered rock. All three study areas are interconnected and important for accurate analysis of seismic data and TL monitoring of this and other oil reservoirs undergoing fluid injection. The first approach focuses on estimating the source waveforms from reflection seismic data, which is critical for evaluating accurate well-to-seismic ties as well as in other applications. A simple and effective method is proposed, based on iterative identification of the strongest and sparse reflections in seismic records, which allows estimation of source waveforms through an optimization approach, without well-log control and statistical hypotheses. The method allows correcting for coherent noise which seems to occur in stacked Weyburn data, consisting in (de)amplification and time shifts of the low-frequency components of the records. The method is tested on real and self-similar synthetic well-log models and applied to the Weyburn seismic data. For the second topic, a post-stack waveform-calibration processing procedure is developed in order to achieve accurate consistency of TL datasets. Time shifts between the monitor and baseline records are also measured during this procedure, and an improved method for calculating the TL reflectivity differences is proposed. Further, instead of subtraction of the baseline and monitor AIs, TL AI variations are evaluated directly from the reflectivity differences and baseline AI. AI inversion is performed by an accurate and stable method using the stacked reflection and well-log data, and also seismic velocities measured during data processing. The inverted time shifts and TL AI variations correlate with CO2 distributions within the reservoir and allow estimating parameters of the reservoir. In the third research area, a completely new approach to seismic wave modeling is proposed. Rigorous first-principle continuum mechanics is used instead of the conventional viscoelastic approximation. This modeling considers the existence of internal variables, body-force internal friction, and boundary conditions for internal variables. These factors are disregarded in the viscoelastic model, but they should cause dominant effects on seismic-wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in layered media. Numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation is performed in a model of the Weyburn Field. The resulting wavefield and seismic attenuation parameters are found to strongly depend on the internal boundary conditions between layers. Several types of quality (Q) factors are measured in the modeled synthetic waveforms.
wavelet estimation, time-lapse, seismic impedance, CO2 sequestration, seismic modeling, wave propagation
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)