Repository logo

Factors associated with perceived time pressure among Canadian working parents : does gender make a difference?



Journal Title

Journal ISSN

Volume Title




Degree Level



The perception of not having enough time to do all of the things one needs to get done appears to be on the rise across industrialized nations. In Canada, for example, 16.4% of the population reported high levels of pressure in 1992, compared with 19.7% in 2005. Understanding the factors associated with perceived time pressure is important for public health, particularly given research suggesting that perceptions of time pressure are increasing in Western society and that such perceptions are linked with social and mental well-being. The overall goal of this study was to better understand the patterning of perceived time pressure among working mothers and fathers in Canada according to whether they occupied the additional role of partner and/or caregiver, as well as according to characteristics associated with their paid work and family roles. The Gender, Work, and Family Health Survey, conducted in Saskatoon Canada in 2005 provided the data for this study. The total sample was 1160 (674 women and 486 men). Results of the multiple linear regression analyses showed that both role occupancy and role quality were related to perceived time pressure among employed parents but that the precise nature of these relationships depends on gender. For mothers, the following factors were associated with increased time pressure: occupancy of an unpaid caregiving role, parenting a child with at least one health/behavioral problem, agreement with the statements "parenting makes me feel drained or exhausted" or "parenting makes me feel tense and anxious", and low perceived social support. Regarding the paid work environment, women who were categorized as high strain (ie., high demands/low control) or active (high demands/high control) also reported higher levels of time pressure. For fathers, the following variables were associated with greater time pressure: occupancy of the partner role, being a multiple job holder and having a high strain (ie., high demands/low control) or active (high demands/high control) psychosocial work environment. Limitations of the study are discussed as are the policy implications of the findings.



Time pressure



Master of Science (M.Sc.)


Community Health and Epidemiology


Community Health and Epidemiology



Part Of