A Virtual Testbed for Fish-Tank Virtual Reality: Improving Calibration with a Virtual-in-Virtual Display
With the development of novel calibration techniques for multimedia projectors and curved projection surfaces, volumetric 3D displays are becoming easier and more affordable to build. The basic requirements include a display shape that defines the volume (e.g. a sphere, cylinder, or cuboid) and a tracking system to provide each user's location for the perspective corrected rendering. When coupled with modern graphics cards, these displays are capable of high resolution, low latency, high frame rate, and even stereoscopic rendering; however, like many previous studies have shown, every component must be precisely calibrated for a compelling 3D effect. While human perceptual requirements have been extensively studied for head-tracked displays, most studies featured seated users in front of a flat display. It remains unclear if results from these flat display studies are applicable to newer, walk-around displays with enclosed or curved shapes. To investigate these issues, we developed a virtual testbed for volumetric head-tracked displays that can measure calibration accuracy of the entire system in real-time. We used this testbed to investigate visual distortions of prototype curved displays, improve existing calibration techniques, study the importance of stereo to performance and perception, and validate perceptual calibration with novice users. Our experiments show that stereo is important for task performance, but requires more accurate calibration, and that novice users can make effective use of perceptual calibration tools. We also propose a novel, real-time calibration method that can be used to fine-tune an existing calibration using perceptual feedback. The findings from this work can be used to build better head-tracked volumetric displays with an unprecedented amount of 3D realism and intuitive calibration tools for novice users.
FTVR, VR, Perspective-corrected, Volumetric, headtracked, 3D
Master of Science (M.Sc.)