ASSOCIATION OF MOLECULAR STRUCTURE SPECTRAL FEATURES WITH NUTRIENT PROFILES AND AVAILABILITY AND MILK PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF NEWLY DEVELOPED BLEND-PELLETED PRODUCTS IN HIGH PRODUCING DAIRY COWS
The main objectives of this study were to: (1) study the association between the molecular structural features related to the amide region and protein utilization of blend-pelleted products based on canola meal or carinata meal, and (2) evaluate the effects of feeding newly developed blend-pelleted products based on carinata meal or canola meal on production efficiency, ruminal fermentation characteristics, ruminal degradability, and intestinal digestion in high-producing dairy cows. Result from the first study showed that the moleclar structural related to amide region were detected using fourier transform infrared (FTIR) vibration spectroscopy in which, increasing the level of canola or carinata meal in the blend-pelleted products (BPPs) significantly increased (P < 0.05) the amide area and amide height. All BPPs were similar in the secondary structure profile (α helix to β sheet ratio). A second study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding BPPs based on canola and carinata meal relative to control diet (control, is a barley-based diet in western Canada) on production efficiency, nutrients digestibility, and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. The results showed that there was no significant effect (P > 0.10) of dietary treatments on milk yield, milk composition, and milk components yield. All dietary treatments exhibited the same income over feed cost (P > 0.10). The total-tract digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not (P > 0.10) affected by treatments. Third study was carried out to assess the effect of the dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation and ruminal digestion in dairy cows. The control diet exhibited a higher rumen total volatile fatty acid concentration (P < 0.05) relative to BPP based on canola meal. There was no effect (P > 0.10) of treatments on ruminal ammonia concentration. Furthermore, all diets exhibited the same (P > 0.10) ruminal degradation kinetics, intestinal digestion of nutrients, and metabolizable protein supply in dairy cows. In conclusion, the blend-pelleted products based on new co-product (carinata meal) from bio-fuel processing industry is similar to the other pelleted products based on canola meal without affecting the production efficiency or the ruminal fermentation features in dairy cows. Molecular spectroscopy can be used to determine the inherent structural characteristics in relation to protein profile, energy values, protein digestion (rumen and intestine), and the metabolizable protein supply in the blend-pelleted products based on different bio-energy co-products.
blend-pelleted products, carinata meal, canola meal, dairy cow
Master of Science (M.Sc.)
Animal and Poultry Science