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Short circuit modeling of wind turbine generators



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Modeling of wind farms to determine their short circuit contribution in response to faults is a crucial part of system impact studies performed by power utilities. Short circuit calculations are necessary to determine protective relay settings, equipment ratings and to provide data for protection coordination. The plethora of different factors that influence the response of wind farms to short circuits makes short circuit modeling of wind farms an interesting, complex, and challenging task. Low voltage ride through (LVRT) requirements make it necessary for the latest generation of wind generators to be capable of providing reactive power support without disconnecting from the grid during and after voltage sags. If the wind generator must stay connected to the grid, a facility has to be provided to by-pass the high rotor current that occurs during voltage sags and prevent damage of the rotor side power electronic circuits. This is done through crowbar circuits which are of two types, namely active and passive crowbars, based on the power electronic device used in the crowbar triggering circuit. Power electronics-based converters and controls have become an integral part of wind generator systems like the Type 3 doubly fed induction generator based wind generators. The proprietary nature of the design of these power electronics makes it difficult to obtain the necessary information from the manufacturer to model them accurately. Also, the use of power electronic controllers has led to phenomena such as sub-synchronous control interactions (SSCI) in series compensated Type 3 wind farms which are characterized by non-fundamental frequency oscillations. SSCI affects fault current magnitude significantly and is a crucial factor that cannot be ignored while modeling series compensated Type 3 wind farms. These factors have led to disagreement and inconsistencies about which techniques are appropriate for short circuit modeling of wind farms. Fundamental frequency models like voltage behind transient reactance model are incapable of representing the majority of critical wind generator fault characteristics such as sub-synchronous interactions. The Detailed time domain models, though accurate, demand high levels of computation and modeling expertise. Voltage dependent current source modeling based on look up tables are not stand-alone models and provide only a black-box type of solution. The short circuit modeling methodology developed in this research work for representing a series compensated Type 3 wind farm is based on the generalized averaging theory, where the system variables are represented as time varying Fourier coefficients known as dynamic phasors. The modeling technique is also known as dynamic phasor modeling. The Type 3 wind generator has become the most popular type of wind generator, making it an ideal candidate for such a modeling method to be developed. The dynamic phasor model provides a generic model and achieves a middle ground between the conventional electromechanical models and the cumbersome electromagnetic time domain models. The essence of this scheme to model a periodically driven system, such as power converter circuits, is to retain only particular Fourier coefficients based on the behavior of interest of the system under study making it computationally efficient and inclusive of the required frequency components, even if non-fundamental in nature. The capability to model non-fundamental frequency components is critical for representing sub-synchronous interactions. A 450 MW Type 3 wind farm consisting of 150 generator units was modeled using the proposed approach. The method is shown to be highly accurate for representing faults at the point of interconnection of the wind farm to the grid for balanced and unbalanced faults as well as for non-fundamental frequency components present in fault currents during sub-synchronous interactions. Further, the model is shown to be accurate also for different degrees of transmission line compensation and different transformer configurations used in the test system.



short circuit modelling, type 3 wind generator, generalized averaging, dynamic phasors, sub-synchronous control interactions



Master of Science (M.Sc.)


Electrical and Computer Engineering


Electrical Engineering


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