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Selective Encryption of Video Data for IoT Environments



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New advances in the Internet of Things (IoT) have raised lots of concerns regarding the reliability and security of devices within such environments since any vulnerability in the functionality of actuators or leak of data in IoT networks can have severe consequences. One reason for such cybersecurity threats in IoT devices is neglecting security issues during manufacturing due to required costs or expertise. However, IoT systems' progress and growth would not be stable without the development of security standards and rectification of its relevant privacy issues. Moreover, we should mention that the security issues in IoT environments are much more challenging compared to the security issues in the Internet. This is because of the inherent characteristics that come with the IoT, i.e., hardware resource constraints or conducting various physical actions over the Internet network through a wide range of devices. Visual sensors serve as a critical component of the Internet of Things (IoT). There is an ever-increasing demand for broad applications and higher resolutions of videos and cameras in smart homes and smart cities, such as in security cameras. To utilize this large volume of video data generated from networks of visual sensors for various machine vision applications, it needs to be compressed and securely transmitted over the Internet. H.266/VVC, as the new compression standard that brings the highest compression rate for visual data. To provide security along with high compression, a selective encryption method for hiding information of videos is presented for this new compression standard. Selective encryption methods can lower the computation overhead of the encryption while keeping the video bitstream format which is useful when the video goes into untrusted blocks such as transcoding or watermarking. Syntax elements that represent considerable information are selected for the encryption, i.e., luma Intra Prediction Modes (IPMs), Motion Vector Difference (MVD), and residual signs., then the results of the proposed method are investigated in terms of visual security and bit rate change. Our experiments show that the encrypted videos provide higher visual security compared to other similar works in previous standards, and integration of the presented encryption scheme into the VVC encoder has little impact on the bit rate efficiency (results in 2% to 3% bit rate increase). The results indicate that iithis method can serve as a suitable video encryption scheme in the latest video compression standard for most applications. Moreover, the advantages of such methods are further highlighted when considering the UHD videos, such as for 8k or 16k resolutions in Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) applications.



Video compression, video encryption, H.266/VVC, IoVT



Master of Science (M.Sc.)


Electrical and Computer Engineering


Electrical Engineering


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