Repository logo


University of Saskatchewan's Repository for Research, Scholarship, and Artistic Work

Welcome to HARVEST, the repository for research, scholarship, and artistic work created by the University of Saskatchewan community. Browse our collections below or find out more and submit your work.


Recent Submissions

Irrational Optimism in a Declining Industry: Sir Adam Beck's Interurban Railway Proposal
(Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, 2004) Mentzer, Marc S.
Sir Adam Beck, best known for his advocacy of publicly owned electric utilities, in 1920 sought to build a network of electric interurban railways, essentially long-distance trolleys, in southern Ontario. Beck’s proposal illustrates the phenomenon of irrationally optimistic responses to decline of an industry.
Visa Policies and Innovation: How Powerful Is Your Passport?
(Decision Sciences Institute, 2019) Mentzer, Marc S.
The growth of isolationist ideologies in the United States and other countries has generated interest in the relationship between international mobility and innovation. This study focuses on visa policies as an indicator of a country’s openness to cross-border flows of people, and examines the relationship between visa policies and innovation.
The Role of Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Need for Cognition in Second Language Acquisition
(2000) McIntosh, Cameron Norman; Noels, Kimberly
Theorists and researchers working in the area of second language (L2) learning and motivation have recently begun to consider the relevance of variables from other areas of general and educational psychology to the language learning context (for a review, see Dornyei, 1998). The purpose of this research project was to test a causal model of the relations among a number of individual difference variables (implicit theories of intelligence, beliefs about language aptitude, and need for cognition), self-determination, language learning strategy use, and L2 proficiency. Student volunteers (N= 126) enrolled in language courses (French, German, and Spanish) at the University of Saskatchewan completed a questionnaire assessing the above constructs. Results of structural equation modeling analyses showed that (1) need for cognition was positively related to both self-determination and cognitive strategies, (2) self-determination positively predicted cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, and social strategies, and (3) social strategies were positively related to self-ratings of L2 competence. (Self-ratings of L2 proficiency were substituted for objective ratings of achievement in the model due to an insufficient number of available final course grades (n = 65)). Post hoc modification of the model included adding a correlation between implicit theories of intelligence and need for cognition. A hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relations between final course grades and the other study variables. Results showed that cognitive, affective, and metacognitive strategies functioned as suppressor variables. Specifically, cognitive strategies showed a stronger positive relation with achievement when affective and metacognitive strategies were partialed out, and both affective and metacognitive strategies showed a negative relation with achievement when cognitive strategies were partialed out. The results show that integrating constructs from different motivational frameworks continues to enhance our understanding of both L2 motivation in particular and educational motivation in general, and that further research is necessary to clarify the relations between language learning strategies and L2 achievement.
“…taken in hand by Indians”: Jewish-Indigenous Relations in the Early Twentieth-Century Qu'Appelle Valley Region
(2023-12-05) Benson, Sarah May; Troupe, Cheryl; Korinek, Valerie J; Englebert, Robert; Horwitz, Simonne; Neufeld, Matthew
The abstract of this item is unavailable due to an embargo.
(2023-12-05) Okata, Emmanuel Oduro; Larson, Kathy; Kulshreshtha, Suren; Hesseln, Hayley; Lloyd-Smith, Patrick; McCreary, Ian
Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) is a perennial and widely established noxious weed that troubles pasturelands. Cattle avoid grazing pasture areas infested with leafy spurge, in effect, reducing the grazing capacity of the invaded pasture. Saskatchewan is home to 30% of beef cows in Canada and more than half of a cow’s annual diet comes from grazing perennial forages. Thus, leafy spurge infestation signals adverse economic implications for beef cattle production and its related industries. This study uses financial (private cost-benefit) and social cost-benefit analysis to compare and select the best control method for leafy spurge, as well as using an input-output model to assess the economic impact of leafy spurge control methods in Elbow pasture. A frequently asked question is whether leafy spurge should be managed with public or private funds? Elbow pasture has struggled with leafy spurge since at least the 1970s and has been receiving public assistance to aid with control efforts. Any public or private assistance for such a control program must be based on economic efficiency grounds. Hence, financial, and social cost-benefit analysis for three control methods – herbicide, targeted grazing and combined - were conducted to support the decision to select the most optimal method for leafy spurge management. Reduced grazing capacity of the pasture associated with the current leafy spurge infestation was estimated at 6468 Animal Unit Months (AUM) which can support 924 cows per 5 month grazing season. Using the Saskatchewan input-output (I-O) model, the study found that herbicide application generated the highest economic impact, amounting to approximately $2.3 million in labour income. The combined method had the second-highest economic impact at around $151,420, while targeted grazing had the lowest impact at approximately $78,890. The results indicate that using chemical treatment for controlling leafy spurge leads to higher economic growth compared to the other methods. The financial and social cost-benefit analyses yielded a negative net present value (NPV) for herbicide application, indicating its economic undesirability. Conversely, targeted grazing emerged as an economically viable option with positive NPV. Targeted grazing demonstrated a potential cost savings when compared to future costs of uncontrolled infestation, with positive incremental costs. Combined method resulted in a negative NPV in the financial analysis and a positive NPV in the social cost-benefit analysis. However, this study supports existing literature, emphasizing the importance of using integrated or combined control methods to manage leafy spurge infestations effectively.
Design and Characterization of Antibody-Conjugated T-Cells and Mimetic Nanovesicles for Cancer Therapy
(2023-12-04) Medina Salguero, Andres X; Geyer, Ron; Luo, Yu; Lukong, Erique; Uppalapati , Maruti; Price, Eric
The development of immune cell therapies (ICTs) such as chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells and bi-specific T cell engagers (BiTEs) are revolutionizing cancer treatment. However, production of these therapies is challenging, tedious, and costly. To overcome these obstacles, we are developing a more efficient and cost-effective ICT that does not require genetic engineering of T cells. This therapy involves metabolically engineering T cells to incorporate tetraacetylated N-azidoacetyl-D-mannosamine (Ac4ManNAz) into cell surface proteins, allowing dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO)-labelled antibodies to be conjugated on the cell surface using a strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reaction. The conjugation process does not depend on the identity of the antibody, enabling antibody-conjugated T cells (ACTs) to be personalized with one or more antibodies, according to their intended application. In this study, we engineered T cells by conjugating them to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody nimotuzumab. Nimotuzumab-conjugated ACTs interacted better with EGFR-positive cell lines and enhanced the killing efficacy compared to unmodified T cells. Current ICTs such as CAR-T cells have a limited efficacy against solid tumors. To overcome this limitation, we developed a second strategy to target and kill tumor cells. We produced mimetic nanovesicles (M-NVs) from activated-T cells. The small size of M-NVs should allow them to better penetrate solid tumors. M-NVs were labelled with 6-Azidohexanoic acid NHS Ester (NHS-AZ) followed by DBCO-nimotuzumab conjugation. Nimotuzumab-conjugated M-NVs inhibited EGFR-positive cancer cell growth better than non-targeted M-NVs. In summary, our strategy to construct nimotuzumab-conjugated ACTs and M-NVs in a simple, robust, and cost-effective manner allows for an adaptive platform that is translatable to other research labs, being a promising strategy to enhance cancer immune therapies.
(1985) Burnham, Keith E.
Time motion and workload measurement studies have been valuable management tools since the early 1900's. They have been successfully applied to many situations and occupations to increase worker productivity and to aid managers in determining staffing levels. Pharmacy staffing levels were historically determined by intuition and various rules of thumb. By the 1960's pharmacy managers recognized the need for a more scientific method of determining proper staffing levels. The advent of clinical pharmacy services made this requirement more critical. A review of the literature shows that Rothenbuhler and Archambault, Summerfield, Hammel, Levin and Toohey used time motion studies to develop various pharmacy workload measurement systems. However, since these systems were developed in only 1 or 2 hospitals, they were difficult to implement in other pharmacy departments across the country. In Canada, Schnell conducted a study entitled, "The Development of a Canadian Hospital Pharmacy Workload Measurement System". Since his study was to provide a data base useful to all Canadian hospitals, Schnell first determined what constituted pharmacy work in Canada and then developed national standards of practice. Stopwatch time studies where then conducted in 13 hospitals representing all geographical areas of the country. The results provided the definition of 290 distinct elements of pharmacy work and the average time to complete each element. The purpose of this study was to develop a new pharmacy workload measurement system for the Canadian Forces. They presently use a line item issue system. In this study, a total of 18 workload units which describe military pharmacy work were identified. These workload units were then defined using elements which were reported in other studies or determined by direct observation of pharmacy work during on site visits to military pharmacies. The average time to complete each element was taken from the studies in which it was reported or determined by stopwatch time study during the on site visits. Adding the element times together gave the average time required to complete a workload unit. Non-measurable work was identified by having military pharmacy staff self-report daily activities and the time spent on each activity. Any activity which could not be placed under one of the defined workload units was considered non-measureable workload. In this study, non-measurable workload was 50% of measurable workload or 33% of the total departmental workload. A new workload reporting form was designed to present the new workload units and non-measurable workload. This form allowed for the easy comparison of the time spent on the various activities or category of activities. The new workload measurement system using the sum of measurable workload plus the actual non-measurable workload from the self-reporting forms was compared (by paired T -test) against the present line item issue system. The sum of measurable workload plus 50% of measurable workload was also compared to the present system. In both cases the new workload measurement system captured a significantly greater amount of productive time than the present system. This study concluded that the new workload measurement system better described the actual work being done in military pharmacy departments. It also was more efficient than the present line item issued system because it captured a greater amount of productive time over the same reporting period.
(2002-12) Burka-Charles, Marcy Jean; Butler-Jones, David; Green, Kathryn; Berenbaum, Shawna; Labonte, Ron; Maslany, George
Over the years, health promotion has evolved from an approach focused on medical and behavioural factors to one that addresses broader determinants of health. Research to date has largely focused on medical and behavioural prevention activities of singular health disciplines. A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used to explore perceived current and desired health promotion initiatives, supports, and barriers of Saskatchewan general practitioners/family physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and dietitians. The study was based on Labonte's framework for health promotion (medical, behavioural, and socio-environmental practice paradigms). An 80 item researcher-developed questionnaire was mailed to 400 randomly sampled health practitioners (100/professional group under study). Parametric (one-way ANOVAs, Pearson's product moment), non-parametric (chi-square), and multivariate (factorial validity) statistics were conducted. Response rates of nurses (53%), pharmacists (63%) and dietitians (69%) were impressive; the physician response rate was smaller than hoped (41%) limiting generalintions of physician's results. Reliability and correlation measures determined the 6-point Prevention Activities Scale (PAS) and subscales were highly reliable (r -values ranged from 0.72 to 0.81), linearly related (correlation values statistically significant at p ≤0.05), and highly associated (i.e., respondents did not distinguish between current and desired prevention activities). Factor analysis did not fully support the use of Labonte's three practice paradigms, yet produced a new PAS scale consisting of three discrete, highly reliable constructs (individual prevention, education, and advocacy initiatives). The reliability assessment of the factor analytically-based PAS suggested the subscales were more reliable than the original (r-values ranged from 0.77 to 092). The respondents' were largely middle-aged females (between 30 to 50 years of age) working in large urban settings with 0 to 10 years work experience. One-way ANOVAs determined most professions worked primarily within the medical and behavioural paradigms, with infrequent involvement in the socio-environmental paradigm. Approximately 50% of the respondents' most prominent bathers were limitations in time, remuneration, and funds. The respondents' personal belief in health promotion, perceived job responsibilities, multidisciplinary work environments, and the endorsement of colleagues, managers, health authorities, and professional association(s) were considered health promotion enabling factors.
Evaluation of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Stem and Root Traits that Influence Lodging
(2023-11-30) Taylor, Michael Warren; Beattie, Aaron; Feurtado, Allan; Beattie, Aaron; Noble , Scott; Warkentin, Thomas; Badea, Ana
The abstract of this item is unavailable due to an embargo.
(1991-11) Arora, Vinod Kumar; Dimmock, J.R.; Hamon, N.W.; Hawes, E.M.; Hindmarsh, K.W.; Majewski, M.; Tourigny, G.
The present investigation was based on the following two observations. First, derivatives of styryl ketones and their corresponding Mannich bases have been found to possess antineoplastic activity with little or no affinity for the amino or hydroxyl groups found in nucleic acids. In particular the Mannich bases have a pronounced predilection for thiols and react approximately 240 times faster than the corresponding ketones. Hence these compounds may be free from undesired mutagenic and carcinogenic with present day alkylating agents. Second, L-histidinol which is a structural analog of the essential amino acid histidine has been found to protect normal cells from insult caused by various antineoplastic agents e.g. BCNU(N,N-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea), cyclophosphamide, cis-platinum etc.. The aim of the present investigation was twofold and can be oulined as follows. It starts with the synthesis of a compound(55a) which contains a Mannich base(a cytotoxic species) and L-histidinol. The Mannich base is a 7-piperidone with two arylidene groups attached to the piperidine ring adjacent to the carbonyl function. Second, the design, synthesis and antineoplastic evaluation of some potential alkylating species(A) was contemplated with a view to developing structure-activity relationships and of obtaining a compound with optimum activity.