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HARVEST

University of Saskatchewan's Repository for Research, Scholarship, and Artistic Work

Welcome to HARVEST, the repository for research, scholarship, and artistic work created by the University of Saskatchewan community. Browse our collections below or find out more and submit your work.

 

Recent Submissions

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Critical elements for local Indigenous water security in Canada: a narrative review
(IWA Publishing, 2018) Latchmore, Tessa; Schuster Wallace, Corinne; Longboat, Dan Roronhiakewen; Dickson-Anderson, Sarah E.; Majury, Anna
Indigenous communities in Canada are over-represented with respect to poor water quality and water advisories. To date, approaches to solve this water crisis have been founded in the Western Science (WS) context with little to no consultation or dialogue with those communities most impacted, and without regard for culture. A literature review was undertaken to: (i) document Indigenous Knowledge (IK), and perspectives regarding water and (ii) to identify current local water security tools utilized by Indigenous communities. The aim is to provide sound evidence regarding the value of ownership and leadership by Indigenous communities in the context of current and appropriate resources available to (re)claim these roles. Solutions must remain consistent with, and founded upon, traditional Indigenous worldviews and cultural values to ensure sustainable water security. Literature reviewed from the past ten years revealed one overarching creation theme with three water-specific themes in Indigenous communities; namely, water from natural sources, water as a life-giving entity, and water and gender. Ultimately, there needs to be a new framing of local water security with the development of tools which engage IK and WS in order to assess local water security and appropriately inform interventions, policies, regulations and legislation.
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Assessment of Water SDG Proposals against Principles for SDGs
(UNU-INWEH, 2013) Adeel, Zafar; Bullock, Andrew; Chaudry, M. A.; Kuylenstierna, Johan; Qadir, Manzoor; Schuster Wallace, Corinne; Weitz, Nina
This document complements the report “Catalyzing Water for Sustainable Development and Growth. Framing Water within the Post 2015 Agenda: Options and Considerations” (Available from: http://inweh.unu.edu/water-sustainability). It outlines the assessment of three clusters of water SDG proposals against four outcome-based and four attribute-based principles, which SDGs should meet.
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Catalyzing water for sustainable Development and growth
(UNU-INWEH, 2013) Adeel, Zafar; Bullock, Andrew; Chaudry, M. A.; Kuylenstierna, Johan; Qadir, Manzoor; Schuster Wallace, Corinne; Weitz, Nina
The international community has invested considerably in discussing and defining the global development agenda after 2015, when the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will reach their maturity date. The underlying debate was kicked off in earnest at Rio, where the world leaders gathered in June 2012 to inter alia discuss the outlines and framework of that development agenda. The outcome of the dialogue at Rio, encapsulated in the document “The Future We Want,” included elements of social development, environmental integrity and economic growth. Water, as both a resource and a human right, figured centrally in this document. As the dialogue and efforts further intensified since the Rio Summit to converge on the global framework for a post-2015 development agenda, it also became apparent that the evidence base for comparatively assessing various development scenarios was largely absent. This indeed was the case for the discussion around issues related to drinking water, sanitation, water resources management and water quality. It is apparent that some ambiguity exists around whether water should be identified as a stand-alone issue area, or considering its significance in various sectors and fields of development, should appear in all of them in an integrated manner. In recent years, there has been considerable debate in the international community about understanding the nexus between water, energy and food security; while some interesting approaches have emerged from that discussion, implementation of this concept through sector-focused government agencies and various stakeholders remains a challenge. This report is an independent evidence-based analysis of how water can be addressed in a developing agenda beyond 2015. Its formulation, and the underlying study, was undertaken by UNOSD, UNU-INWEH and SEI as a way of addressing the information gaps and providing background information that can be used by the UN member states and other stakeholders in negotiations. The overall goal of this report is to draw attention to the complexities of water as a resource and a human right, and the challenges associated in implementing the various formulations of Sustainable Development Goals related to water. The report takes stock of how water figured in the MDGs and the key lessons we can learn about how to improve the response of the international community to the global water challenges. It uses this analysis to offer a forward-looking assessment of the various models of incorporating water in the post-2015 development agenda. It is obvious that significant investments are needed to meet the water-related challenges; the report gives the first ballpark-estimates of these investments. It also highlights the fact that these investments are not just needed by developing countries but, in fact, by all countries. Developed countries will need to provide significant new investments in near future to replace aging infrastructure and support urban sprawl. Emerging studies point to the consideration that decentralization, social media, and novel ways to raise capital should be used to empower local populations to create their own solutions. This report has made us realize that more concerted efforts at all levels are required to create the enabling environment necessary to implement solutions and that such efforts will have to be broader than just dealing directly with water issues. Transparent and accountable governance will have to support all aspects of a sustainable planet. As we approach some planetary tipping points, and resulting irreversible changes, innovative perspectives and paradigm shifts are necessary. This report is meant to enable that process. We look forward to engaging with the UN member states and other stakeholders in order to discuss its findings and address emerging issues through future studies.
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A Micro Financing Framework for Rural Water and Sanitation provisioning in Sub-Saharan Africa
(UNU-INWEH, 2014) Mengueze, Sandrine; Mbuvi, Dorcas; Dickin, Sarah; Schuster Wallace, Corinne
Across rural regions in particular, inadequate access to water supply and sanitation (WSS) services negatively affects women more than men. Women and girls are twice as likely as men (and boys) to bear the burden of water collection that requires walking long distances in search of improved sources. Collecting and carrying large amounts of water is physically demanding and limits time available to pursue educational, professional and leisure activities. Indeed, women lose about forty billion hours each year in daily water collection in SSA - time that could be redirected towards other socio-economic and productive activities. Moreover, women and girls risk physical and sexual assualt when collecting water or trying to find a dignified location to relieve themselves. Given the need for sustainable access to WSS in rural Sub Saharan Africa for improved quality of life, universal access becomes a moral and practical imperative. Water is necessary for health, food production, economic activities and environmental integrity. In order to attain national water supply and sanitation (WSS) Millennium Development Goal targets by 2015, developing country governments need to advance their rural WSS services coverage. In Sub Saharan Africa in particular, scaling up functional, quality, reliable and affordable WSS facilities among rural populations is a significant impediment. Moreover, in most cases rural households find it difficult to raise up-front capital that is often required for the construction of facilities. Self-sustaining micro financed facilities can be realized for equitable and safe rural WSS provision. A systematic model through which sustainable rural WSS-related micro financing can be attained is currently lacking. Self-supply, while contested with respect to issues of responsibility, is a feasible option given that there is money to be made in service delivery and the fact that many rural families pay considerably more for their drinking water through informal water providers, without any guarantee of quality. This does not have to undermine government responsibility for provision; rather accelerate the scale up and out of rural access and put community-based mechanisms in place for sustainable interventions that can be incorporated into national WSS strategies as they become established. Moreover, it overcomes the primary challenge in self-supply – that of up front funds for infrastructure. Given that key principles of successful microfinance (including shared solidarity and mutual accountability, access to capital, capacity development and ownership) are similar to and supportive of the principles of sustainable WSS interventions (community engagement and ownership, capacity development, financial accountability), it makes sense to explore this as a mechanism for self-supply in rural settings in order to increase access in a timely manner. A co-operative microfinance framework would potentially share the financial and social costs and benefits between communities and governments. Many of the benefits that accrue through WSS access are realized by the community (through increased health, school attendance and time savings) and the government (through reduction in requirements for other services, such as healthcare, and improved productivity that supports national growth). The framework demands active and coordinated government support through specific related ministries (water and sanitation, health, finance, rural development, public works, etc.). It relies on continued village demand for improved WSS facilities and willingness to effectively engage in the revolving RoSCA schemes. Additionally, it is founded on clear division of responsibilities among four main stakeholders for the transparent and accountable operationalization of interventions. The revenue generated, in addition to paying for the operation and maintenance of the system(s) can be used to acquire or expand additional basic household services. As a result, co-operative members are able to engage in other water and non-water related entrepreneurial activities, to add on to the WSS-fund and strengthen the local economy more generally. However, the framework is flexible and not limited to WSS provisioning.
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Don't Steal My Days, I'll Give Them To You
(2024-07-19) Bliss, Daniel; Lynes, Jeanette; Benning , Sheri; Martin, Ann; Ruzesky, Jay
Don't Steal My Days, I'll Give Them to You comprises narrative, lyric poems that explore the complex relationship between place and human experience. The collection expands across various themes, including loss, coming of age, family, health, and more, while set in a range of places, including those both traveled to for a short amount of time, and those inhabited by the speaker for years. The places in my poems help call forth human experiences, while showing how place and identity are intertwined. Don't Steal My Days, I'll Give Them to You emerges out of my experience as someone who grew up in the nomadic lifestyle of the military. I have never stopped moving, and as such am fascinated with how place and selfhood intertwine.
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The Impact of Phosphorylation, Nutrient and Stress Signaling on Fkh1 Regulation
(2024-07-19) Brakstad, Jordan; Arnason, Terra; Eames, Brian; Verge, Valerie; Bandy, Brian
The abstract of this item is unavailable due to an embargo.
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House of Modular Enhancement (HOME): A Design Tool for Product Modularization
(1999) Sand, Jeffery Christopher; Gu, P.; Watson, L. G.
The intent of modularization is to develop products with modules that are easy to develop, while improving the overall design, manufacturing and operational characteristics of the product. The greater the reduction of inter-modular interactions, the more successful the modular outcome. A product that has been modularized, can greatly assist the reconfiguration of the product, reducing the lead time of design and manufacturing while providing benefits like upgrading, maintenance, customization and recycling. In order to achieve the aforementioned benefits of modularization, a methodology is required to modularize products. This thesis provides a detailed description of a new modular design methodology called the House Of Modular Enhancement (HOME). HOME is a modular design tool that assists the designer with the modularization of a product. Information from all aspects of the design is incorporated into the procedure to help ensure a modular outcome that is best suited to the product under consideration. The HOME methodology has been implemented in a software system that manages all aspects of the procedure. Two case studies were carried out to illustrate the HOME process in its entirety.
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Scour Protection Below Overhanging Culvert Outlets
(1979-05) Johnson, Shane R.; Smith, C.D.
Protection below overhanging culvert outlets is required to prevent scour and negate or minimize pipe undermining. Large culverts may need reinforced concrete protection, but for smaller culverts a more economical and satisfactory means of protection can be provided by using field stone. A three-dimensional model study of scour below overhanging culvert outlets was made. Testing in a plain sand bed was done first in order to outline the process by which scour occurs at an overhanging culvert outlet and the extent to which it occurs. Preliminary tests on the placement of rip-rap to reduce scour were then done to test various placement configurations. These tests were qualitative and no design procedure came about from their results. Testing in a plain rock bed was then done, and from this series of tests a design procedure for protection against scour at an overhanging culvert outlet was formulated.
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Developing a tile drainage module for the Cold Regions Hydrological Model: lessons from a farm in southern Ontario, Canada
(European Geosciences Union, 2024-07-04) Kompanizare, Mazda; Costa, Diogo; Macrae, Merrin; Pomeroy, John W.; Petrone, Richard
Systematic tile drainage is used extensively in poorly drained agricultural lands to remove excess water and improve crop growth; however, tiles can also transfer nutrients from farmlands to downstream surface water bodies, leading to water quality problems. Thus, there is a need to simulate the hydrological behaviour of tile drains to understand the impacts of climate or land management change on agricultural surface and subsurface runoff. The Cold Regions Hydrological Model (CRHM) is a physically based, modular modelling system developed for cold regions. Here, a tile drainage module is developed for CRHM. A multi-variable, multi-criteria model performance evaluation strategy was deployed to examine the ability of the module to capture tile discharge under both winter and summer conditions (NSE > 0.29, RSR < 0.84 and PBias < 20 for tile flow and saturated storage simulations). Initial model simulations run at a 15 min interval did not satisfactorily represent tile discharge; however, model simulations improved when the time step was lengthened to hourly but also with the explicit representation of capillary rise for moisture interactions between the rooting zone and groundwater, demonstrating the significance of capillary rise above the saturated storage layer in the hydrology of tile drains in loam soils. Novel aspects of this module include the sub-daily time step, which is shorter than most existing models, and the use of field capacity and its corresponding pressure head to provide estimates of drainable water and the thickness of the capillary fringe, rather than using detailed soil retention curves that may not always be available. An additional novel aspect is the demonstration that flows in some tile drain systems can be better represented and simulated when related to shallow saturated storage dynamics.
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An integrated assessment of impacts to ecosystem services associated with prairie pothole wetland drainage quantifying wide-ranging losses
(Canadian Science Publishing, 2024-06-20) Whitfield, Colin; Cavaliere, Emily; Baulch, Helen; Clark, Robert; Spence, Christopher; Shook, Kevin; He, Zhihua; Pomeroy, John W.; Wolfe, Jared
In many regions, a tradeoff exists between draining wetlands to support the expansion of agricultural land, and conserving wetlands to maintain their valuable ecosystem services. Decisions about wetland drainage are often made without identifying the impacts on the services these systems provide. We address this gap through a novel assessment of impacts on ecosystem services via wetland drainage in the Canadian prairie landscape. Draining pothole wetlands has large impacts, but sensitivity varies among the indicators considered. Loss of water storage increased the magnitude of median annual flows, but absolute increases with drainage were higher for larger, less frequent events. Total phosphorus exports increased in concert with streamflow. Our analysis suggested disproportionate riparian habitat losses with the first 30% of wetland area drained. Dabbling ducks and wetland-associated bird abundances respond strongly to the loss of small wetland ponds; abundances were predicted to decrease by half with the loss of only 20%–40% of wetland area. This approach to evaluating changes to key wetland ecosystem services in a large region where wetland drainage is ongoing can be used with an economic valuation of the drainage impacts, which should be weighed against the benefits associated with agricultural expansion.