The determination of gemini surfactants used as gene delivery agents in cellular matrix using validated tandem mass spectrometric method
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A simple, reliable flow injection analysis (FIA)-tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of gemini surfactants, designated as 16-3-16, 16(Py)-S-2-S-(Py)16 and 16-7N(GK)-16, as gene delivery agents in cellular matrix. 16-3-16 is a conventional gemini surfactant bearing two quaternary amines, linked by a 3-carbon spacer region, 16(Py)-S-2-S-(Py)16 contains two pyridinium head groups, while 16-7N(GK)-16 bears a glycine-lysine di-peptide in the space region. The method was fully validated according to USFDA guidelines. It is the first time that FIA-MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of gemini surfactants, belonging to different structural families. The method was superior to existing liquid chromatographic (LC)-MS/MS methods in terms of sensitivity and time of analysis. Positive electrospray ionization (ESI) in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode were used on a triple quadrupole-linear ion trap (4000 QTRAP®) instrument. Deuterated internal standards were used to correct for matrix effects and variations in ionization within the ESI source. Isotope dilution standard curves were established in cellular matrix, with a linear range of 10nM-1000nM for 16-3-16 and 16(Py)-S-2-S-(Py)16, and 20nM-2000nM for 16-7N(GK)-16. The precision, accuracy, recovery and stability were all within the acceptable ranges as per the USFDA guidelines. The method was successfully applied for the quantification of target gemini surfactants in the nuclear fraction of PAM 212 keratinocyte cells treated with nanoparticles, which varied significantly and may explain differences in the observed efficiency and/or toxicity of these gemini surfactants in gene delivery.
CitationWei, J., Badea, I., Leary, S.C., and El-Aneed, A. (2018) The determination of gemini surfactants used as gene delivery agents in cellular matrix using validated tandem mass spectrometric method. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2019 Feb 5;164:164-172.
FIA-MS/MS, quantification, gemini surfactants, lipid-based gene delivery agents, cellular matrix
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