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Effect of seeding date on yield and quality of winter wheat (cv. Norstar) grown on stubble and chemical fallow in south western Saskatchewan




McLeod, J.G.
Campbell, C.A.
Dyck, F.B.
Vera, C.
Selles, F.

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Winter wheat (cv. Norstar) was seeded at one site (clay loam stubble) in 1984-85, and three sites (clay loam stubble and chemical fallow, sandy loam stubble, and heavy clay stubble) in 1985-86 and 1986-87. Conditions were very different in each year. In 1984-85, freeze up occurred in mid-October, resulting in poor hardening. This was followed by severe winter temperatures and a very dry summer. In 1985-86, hardening conditions in fall were good followed by a fairly mild winter and good early spring moisture. In 1986-87, fall conditions were moist, the winter was mild, but spring was warm and dry and the rains came late in summer. Conditions in the summer of 1986 also resulted in severe rust infestation on certain treatments (late dates of seeding). In all experiments, when winter wheat was seeded into stubble (stubble crop or chemical fallow) adequate plant stands were established to produce a good crop although high yields were not realized in all cases. A strong year × seeding date interaction was observed. Delayed seeding decreased yields in all tests in both years; yields were decreased more by late seeding in 1986 than in 1987. Stubble crop yields were on average only 77 % of those on chemical fallow (at the clay loam site) when the seeding was done at the optimum time of September 1. Both heading and maturity were delayed in both years by late seeding. This was beneficial for late seeded crops in 1987, since they benefited from late season rains, while in 1986 the late seeded crops on clay loam suffered from severe rust infestation. A strong year effect on protein level was observed at all sites. In 1986, a wet year, protein levels where significantly lower than those of 1985 or 1987 where comparisons can be made. The effect was probably due to the early season drought conditions in 1985 and 1987 (April, May and June) compared to 1986. Seeding date had no effect on protein level except in one test. In all except two treatments, loss of grade on the basis of test weight could be attributed to rust infection in 1986 (Grade of #3 CWRW or Canada Feed). However, additional loss of grade was observed in 1986 because of low protein. The results so far strongly support the recommendation for seeding winter wheat in early September in this area.










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