Browsing College of Engineering by Title
Now showing 1 - 14 of 14
Results Per Page
ItemCharacterization of the evolution of crystallization fouling in membranes(ACS, 2018-12) Olufade, A.O.; Simonson, C.J. ItemA Comprehensive Review of Dehumidifiers and Regenerators for Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning System(Elsevier, 2021-07) A, Gurubalan; Simonson, Carey JLiquid desiccant air conditioning systems (LDAS) are an energy-efficient and eco-friendly alternative to conventional air conditioning systems. The performance of a LDAS significantly depends on its simultaneous heat and mass transfer components, namely dehumidifier and regenerator. These components are referred to as liquid desiccant energy exchangers (LDEEs) since the working fluids (air and desiccant) exchange both heat and moisture. There has been a lot of research on LDEEs over the last two decades to improve their performance, thereby enhancing the efficiency of the LDAS. The main objective of this comprehensive review paper is to summarize the developments of LDEEs. The desiccant material, and design, operating, and performance parameters of LDEEs are explained in detail. Even though a lot of research has been done on LDEEs, they are not much utilized in the practical heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. To address this issue, future research should prioritize its focus on (i) practical problems of LDEEs such as cross contamination, and leakage and blockage of the membrane, (ii) long term performance study in the practical systems, (iii) noncorrosive and inexpensive solution, (iv) compatible material for efficient heat and mass transfer, and (v) generalized design and performance control methodology. The discussions presented in this communication will be useful to ascertain the crucial research gaps that need to be addressed by future research studies. ItemDevelopment of a Small-Scale Test Facility for Effectiveness Evaluation of Fixed-Bed Regenerators(Elsevier, 2020-06-25) Krishnan, Easwaran Nampoothiry; Ramin, Hadi; Shakouri, Mohsen; Wilson, Lee D; Simonson, CareyFixed-bed regenerators (FBR) transfer heat (and moisture) between supply and exhaust air streams in heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems to reduce building energy consumption. This paper presents a new small-scale testing facility to evaluate the performance (i.e. sensible effectiveness) of FBRs for HVAC applications. The major contributions of this paper are: development of a new small-scale experimental facility and methodology for testing FBRs, quantification of uncertainties, and verification of small-scale test data over a large range of FBR design conditions. A numerical model and two well-known design correlations are used to verify the results and testing methodology. The advantages of small-scale testing are that it requires low volume of conditioned airflow, has low uncertainty, requires less exchanger material and has a low cost per test. Moreover, the small-scale testing methodology of FBR would benefit heat exchanger manufacturers to perform detailed sensitivity studies and optimize the exchanger performance over a wide range of design and operating parameters prior to the fabrication of full-scale exchangers. ItemEffects of Variations in Incident Heat Flux When Using Cone Calorimeter Test Data for Prediction of Full-Scale Heat Release Rates of Polyurethane Foam(Wiley, 2016) Robson, Luke; Torvi, David; Obach, Matthew; Weckman, ElizabethThe development of methods to predict full-scale fire behaviour using small-scale test data is of great interest to the fire community. This study evaluated the ability of one model, originally developed during the European Combustion Behaviour of Upholstered Furniture (CBUF) project, to predict heat release rates. Polyurethane foam specimens were tested in the furniture calorimeter using both centre and edge ignition locations. Input data was obtained using cone calorimeter tests and infrared video-based flame area measurements. Two particular issues were investigated: how variations in incident heat flux in cone calorimeter tests impact heat release rate predictions, and the ability of the model to predict results for different foam thicknesses. Heat release rate predictions showed good agreement with experimental results, particularly during the growth phase of the fire. The model was more successful in predicting results for edge ignition tests than for centre ignition tests, and in predicting results for thinner foams. Results indicated that, due to sensitivity of the burning behaviour to foam specimen geometry and ignition location, a single incident heat flux could not be specified for generating input for the CBUF model. Potential methods to determine appropriate cone calorimeter input for various geometries and ignition locations are discussed. ItemExperimental and Modeling Studies of Torrefaction of Spent Coffee Grounds and Coffee Husk: Effects on Surface Chemistry and Carbon Dioxide Capture Performance(ACS Publications, 2022) Mukherjee, Alivia; OKOLIE, JUDE; Niu, Catherine; Dalai, Ajay K.Torrefaction of biomass is a promising thermochemical pretreatment technique used to upgrade the properties of biomass to produce solid fuel with improved fuel properties. A comparative study of the effects of torrefaction temperatures (200, 250, and 300 °C) and residence times (0.5 and 1 h) on the quality of torrefied biomass samples derived from spent coffee grounds (SCG) and coffee husk (CH) were conducted. An increase in torrefaction temperature (200–300 °C) and residence time (0.5–1 h) for CH led to an improvement in the fixed carbon content (17.9–31.8 wt %), calorific value (18.3–25 MJ/kg), and carbon content (48.5–61.2 wt %). Similarly, the fixed carbon content, calorific value, and carbon content of SCG rose by 14.6–29 wt %, 22.3–30.3 MJ/kg, and 50–69.5 wt %, respectively, with increasing temperature and residence time. Moreover, torrefaction led to an improvement in the hydrophobicity and specific surface area of CH and SCG. The H/C and O/C atomic ratios for both CH- and SCG-derived torrefied biomass samples were in the range of 0.93–1.0 and 0.19–0.20, respectively. Moreover, a significant increase in volatile compound yield was observed at temperatures between 250 and 300 °C. Maximum volatile compound yields of 11.9 and 6.2 wt % were obtained for CH and SCG, respectively. A comprehensive torrefaction model for CH and SCG developed in Aspen Plus provided information on the mass and energy flows and the overall process energy efficiency. Based on the modeling results, it was observed that with increasing torrefaction temperature to 300 °C, the mass and energy yield values of the torrefied biomass samples declined remarkably (97.3% at 250 °C to 67.5% at 300 °C for CH and 96.7% at 250 °C to 75.1% at 300 °C for SCG). The SCG-derived torrefied biomass tested for CO2 adsorption at 25 °C had a comparatively higher adsorption capacity of 0.38 mmol/g owing to its better textural characteristics. SCG would need further thermal treatment or functionalization to tailor the surface properties to attract more CO2 molecules under a typical post-combustion scenario. ItemExperimental Investigation on Thermo-Hydraulic Performance of Triangular Cross-Corrugated Flow Passages(Elsevier, 2021-03) Krishnan, Easwaran N; Ramin, Hadi; Guruabalan, A; Simonson, Carey JHeat exchangers made of corrugated flow passages generally have better thermo-hydraulic performance compared to parallel flow passages. The corrugation angle (), corrugation pattern, and the ratio of depth to pitch (hch/Pch) are critical geometrical parameters influencing the heat transfer and pressure drop in corrugated flow passages. This paper experimentally investigates heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of triangular-shaped cross-corrugated flow passages for the range of 25°<<75° and 0.13 ItemHydraulic Structures(Saskatoon: Smith, 1995) Smith, C.D.This book presents general information on the form and function of many types of hydraulic structures and to give detailed theory and design procedures on some of the more common ones. The application of principles is intended to be sufficiently rigorous that a student of the subject will gain a working knowledge of the basic procedures used in hydraulic design. While, of necessity, certain design procedures are empirical, this book is not concerned with the "how" aspect of hydraulic design alone. Equal emphasis is placed on the "why" aspect, since it is only through this approach that the engineer can properly assess the merits of a proposed design for a specific application. ItemA New Dataset of Leaf Optical Traits to Include Biophysical Parameters in Addition to Spectral and Biochemical Assessment(2022) Peters, Reisha; Noble, ScottTo enable future improvement on current leaf optical property models, more data incorporating a larger range of measured properties is needed. To this end, a dataset was collected to associate spectral measurements (ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared) with biochemical and biophysical properties of leaves. The leaves represented in this dataset were selected to provide representation of agricultural species and of leaves with a wide variety of color (pigment) expression, surface characteristics, and age. Data collected for 290 leaf samples studied in this project included multiple spectral measurement geometries and ranges, biochemical assessment of chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, and anthocyanins, and biophysical assessment of leaf thickness and surface characteristics that has not previously been a focus in other leaf datasets. The methods and results associated with this dataset are described in this work. ItemPredicting Mechanical Strength of In-Use Firefighter Protective Clothing using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy(Springer, 2018) Rezazadeh, Moein; Bespflug, Christopher; Torvi, David; Noble, Scott; Fulton, MackenzieThe exact lifespan of in-use firefighter protective clothing is difficult to predict due to the large variations in use between individual garments. Furthermore, testing methods used to evaluate new protective clothing are destructive in nature and could not be applied to in-use garments. Various non-destructive techniques have been proposed for the evaluation of in-use clothing, each possessing its own advantages and disadvantages. The ability of near-infrared spectroscopy to predict the tensile strength of thermally aged fabrics used in protective clothing for wildland firefighters and other workers is investigated here. Fabrics were exposed to heat fluxes from 10 to 40 kW/m^2 for various durations using the cone calorimeter, after which the tensile strength of the fabrics was measured. Temperatures measured during the exposures and results of thermal gravimetric analysis tests were used to interpret changes in tensile strength. Multivariate linear regression was used to develop correlations between the tensile strength and the reflectance values measured between 1500 and 2500 nm for new and thermally aged fabrics. It was found that models based on reflectance measurements made at as few as three wavelengths could be used to estimate the tensile strength of the thermally aged specimens. ItemSuitability of bio-desiccants for energy wheels in HVAC applications(Elsevier, 2021-12) Alabi, Wahab O; Krishanan, Easwaran N; Karoyo, Abdalla H; Dehabadi, Leila; Wilson, Lee D; Simonson, Carey JThis paper investigates the suitability of bio-desiccants for moisture recovery in energy wheels. Bio-desiccants are environment-friendly materials that have high water vapor adsorption capacities. The main contribution of this paper is that it reports the latent effectiveness of flax-fiber (bio-desiccant) coated energy wheels for a wide range of operating conditions and compares the effectiveness of the flax-fiber wheels with wheels that are coated with commercially available desiccants and other biomaterials. The moisture transfer performance of a flax-fiber coated exchanger is determined using a small-scale test facility and two different experimental methods: single step change tests and cyclic tests. The test results are used to verify the applicability of an effectiveness correlation from the literature. Using the energy wheel correlation and the sorption isotherms, the latent effectiveness of commercially available energy wheels coated with molecular sieve, ion exchange resin and silica gel desiccants are obtained and compared with that of bio-desiccants (flax fiber and starch particles). The highest latent effectiveness is obtained for silica gel followed by starch particles, ion exchange resin, flax-fiber and molecular sieve. The results from this study will be useful in research and development of bio-materials for energy recovery systems for building applications. ItemTechno – Economic analysis of activated carbon production from spent coffee grounds: Comparative evaluation of different production routes(Elsevier, 2022) Mukherjee, Alivia; OKOLIE, JUDE; Niu, Catherine; Dalai, Ajay K.Activated carbon (AC) has gained immense popularity owing to its excellent physicochemical properties and its ability to remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gas stream. This study examines the potential of spent coffee grounds (SCG) as a precursor for activated carbon (AC) production via prominent thermochemical conversion technologies. Different production routes, such as slow pyrolysis, activation, and deep eutectic solvent (DES) functionalization were compared in terms of their economic viability. Three scenarios (Scenario 1–3) involving combinations of the technologies and production routes were evaluated. Scenario 1 comprises of slow pyrolysis, CO2 activation and flue gas recycling for activation. Scenario 2 includes flue gas combustion while the third scenario comprise of flue gas combustion and DES impregnation. All processes were simulated with Aspen plus, while a detailed cash flow analysis was used to estimate the profitability parameters. The price of AC was found to be the most crucial determinant of an AC production plant’s viability and feasibility. The minimum selling price (MSP) of AC samples produced from scenarios 1,2 and 3 are U.S $0.15/kg, $0.21/kg, $0.28/kg respectively. The price of pristine AC and DES treated AC were lower than the commercially available activated carbon (U.S $0.45/kg). ItemA transient numerical model for desiccant-coated fixed-bed regenerators and compensation for transient sensor errors(Taylor and Francis, 2021-12) Ramin, Hadi; Krishnan, Easwaran K; Gurubalan, A; Simonson, Carey JDesiccant-coated fixed-bed regenerators (FBRs) can achieve high effectiveness due to high ratio of energy transfer area to volume, and therefore, they are favourable air-to-air energy recovery exchangers for HVAC systems. However, unlike other types of energy recovery exchangers, the air properties (i.e., temperature and humidity) at the outlet of FBRs vary with time. The variations in outlet airflow properties can cause errors in measurements because the measurements include the FBR and sensors transient responses. In this paper, a numerical model is developed to evaluate the performance of desiccant-coated FBRs and their transient operation. The model consists of an exchanger model (FBR model) and sensor (temperature and humidity) models to distinguish the actual performance of the FBR alone from the measured performance, which includes both the FBR and the sensor's response. The model is validated with experimental measurements and available results in the literature. The model can decouple the measured response of the FBR and sensors to predict the FBR performance. This paper's main contribution is an insight into the complex heat and mass transfer processes in desiccant-coated FBRs and measurement sensors. The results of this paper could be used to provide practical recommendations for humidity measurements of different types of desiccant-coated FBRs developed for HVAC applications. Furthermore, the measurement requirements in the current testing standards (ASHRAE 84 and CSA C439-18 standards) for FBRs are examined. Recommendations from this paper could be implemented in future versions of these standards. ItemA TRANSIENT NUMERICAL MODEL FOR SENSIBLE FIXED-BED REGENERATOR IN HVAC APPLICATIONS(Elsevier, 2021-06-16) Ramin, Hadi ItemTransient sensor errors and their impact on fixed-bed regenerator (FBR) testing standards(Taylor and Francis, 2020-12) Ramin, Hadi; Krishnan, Easwaran K; Gurubalan, Annadurai; Alabi, Wahab O; Simonson, Carey JFixed-bed regenerators (FBRs) are a favorable option for energy recovery in building HVAC systems due to their high sensible effectiveness. Unlike other types of energy recovery exchangers, the air temperature at the outlet of FBRs varies with time, which creates challenges when measuring the outlet temperature and effectiveness of FBRs since the actual outlet air temperature will include the transient response of the FBR and the temperature sensor. In this article, a validated numerical model of FBRs that takes into account the sensor response is used to quantify the temperature and effectiveness errors that result due to sensors’ response characteristics over a wide range of design parameters. The main contributions of this article are the practical recommendations for the temperature measurement for different types of FBRs developed for HVAC applications. The recommendations presented in this article could be implemented in future versions of the current standards (ASHRAE 84 and CSA C439-18 standards) for performance testing of air-to-air energy exchangers.