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11th International Conference on Isotopes

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    (2023) Huang, Feng-Yun Jimmy; Chang, Feng-chih; Chao, Jiunn-Hsing
    MEASUREMENT OF 224Ra, 226Ra AND 228Ra IN NATURAL WATERS THROUGH GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETRY Feng-Yun J. Huanga,*, Feng-Chih Changb, Jiunn-Hsing Chaoc aDepartment of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology: No.666, Buzih Road, Beitun District, Taichung City, 40605, Taiwan; bChemical Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research: No.1000, Wenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan District, Taoyuan City, 32546, Taiwan; cNuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University: No.101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu City, 30013, Taiwan; *Corresponding Author Email Address: Introduction Radium in drinking water may expose the public to significant doses of radiation. In this study, a gamma-ray spectroscopic technique was established to determine radium isotopes, which were preconcentrated from natural waters as barium sulfate. Additionally, the concurrent determination of radium isotopes (224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra) in hot spring waters and associated sludge was performed in the Beitou hot spring area in Taiwan. Description of the Work A field survey utilizing gamma-ray spectroscopic technique was conducted in the Beitou hot spring area, where radium activity in hot spring waters and sludge was found to be higher than elsewhere in Taiwan. According to the results, the activity of 224Ra in spring waters was highly correlated with 228Ra due to their identical chemical behavior and original decay chain series. Additionally, concentrations of these radium isotopes (226Ra, 228Ra) and some chemical analogues in sludge were linearly related to one another, revealing their similar chemical behavior and that they may transport and distribute together in the environment. Conclusions Gamma-ray spectroscopic technique was sensitive and alternative way to determine radium isotopes in natural and drinking waters. Radioactivity of radium isotopes in Beitou hot spring waters was relatively high levels compared with elsewhere in Taiwan and not safe for use as drinking water. Concentration of 226Ra/228Ra was correlated with selected chemical analogues in sludge from moderate (Ba and Sr) to strong (Pb) correlation. Keywords: Beitou; radium; gamma-ray; hot spring; natural waters References Huang, F. Y. J., Hsu, F. Y., & Chao, J. H. (2019). Radiation dose due to naturally occurring radionuclides in soils from varying geological environments. Health Phys, vol.116, 657-663.
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    Preparation and Characterization of Site-Specifically Radiolabeled 89Zr-DFO-anti-PD-L1-mAb ImmunoPET Tracer
    (2023) Huang, Feng-Yun Jimmy; Lu, Ching-Chun; Lo, Wei-Lin; Farn, Shiou-Shiow; Yang, Chao-Wei
    Preparation and Characterization of Site-Specifically Radiolabeled 89Zr-DFO-anti-PD-L1-mAb ImmunoPET Tracer Feng-Yun J. Huanga,*, Ching-Chun Lua, Wei-Lin Lob, Shiou-Shiow Farnb, Chao-Wei Yangc aDepartment of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology: No.666, Buzih Road, Beitun District, Taichung City, 40605, Taiwan; bIsotope Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research: No.1000, Wenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan District, Taoyuan City, 32546, Taiwan; cDepartment of Nuclear Medicine, Cheng Ching Hospital – Chung Kang Branch: No.966, Sec 4, Taiwan Blvd., Xitun Dist., Taichung City, 40764, Taiwan; *Corresponding Author Email Address: Introduction Site-specifically radiolabeled immunoPET tracers have been demonstrated to provide superior imaging ability in vivo than conventional radiolabeled one (random method). In this study, preparation and characterization of site-specifically radiolabeled 89Zr-DFO-anti-PD-L1-mAb tracer will be investigated. The site-specific immunoPET tracer could detect the expression of immune checkpoint protein (ex. PD-L1/PD-1) on tumor for assessment of patient stratification before treatment and therapeutic efficacy after treatment. Description of the Work Materials & Methods: The technique of enzymatic glycan modification was utilized to prepare site-specifically radiolabeled 89Zr-immunoPET tracer. In brief, GlyCLICK® and SiteClick® kits were used to prepare azide-activated anti-PD-L1-mAb with degree of labeling of 2 and 4, respectively. Then bifunctional chelator DBCO-DFO was attached to the azide-functionalized antibodies via SPAAC click reaction to form site-specific DFO-anti-PD-L1-mAb conjugates with different chelator-to-antibody ratio (CAR) of 2 and 4. The quality control of conjugates were conducted and then radiolabeled with 89Zr in 1 M HEPES buffer, pH 7, and shaking with 300 rpm at RT for 40 min. In addition, in vitro stability of tracers was estimated in the PBS at RT after purification. Results: Both site-specific DFO-anti-PD-L1-mAb conjugates with CAR of 2 and 4 were performed as transparent, clear, without aggregation, chemical purity of 100%, pH of 7.0 – 7.5. Analysis of conjugates by LC-MS showed that CAR for GlyCLICK® and SiteClick® prepared DFO-anti-PD-L1-mAb conjugates was 2.04 and 3.62, respectively. Results from radio-TLC indicated that radiochemical purity of tracers with CAR of 2 and 4 reached 100% and 98.7%, respectively. In addition, the results from HPLC analysis revealed that radioimpurities in both tracers were less than 5%. For in vitro stability study, radiochemical purity of both tracers displayed no any decline until 7 d incubated in PBS at RT. Conclusions In this study, site-specifically radiolabeled 89Zr-DFO-anti-PD-L1-mAb tracer with CAR of 2 and 4 have been prepared and characterized. The LC-MS results demonstrate that CAR for GlyCLICK® and SiteClick® prepared DFO-anti-PD-L1-mAb conjugates was 2.04 and 3.62, respectively. Radiochemical purity of tracers with CAR of 2 and 4 were large than 98% and both of them showed excellent stability in vitro. Keywords: site-specifically radiolabeled; DFO; 89Zr; immunoPET; PD-L1/PD-1 References European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, 2019;47(5):1302 – 1313.
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    Cross-section Measurement and Thick Target Production of Terbium Radioisotopes by Enriched Gadolinium Targets
    (2023) wang, yizheng; GUERTIN, Arnaud; NIGRON, Etienne; haddad, ferid; Michel, Nathalie; Sounalet, Thomas
    Introduction Short-lived radioisotopes of the terbium (Tb) family show great prospects in theranostics: the 149Tb can be used for alpha therapy, the 152Tb, as a positron emitter, can be applied for the positron emission tomography (PET), the 155Tb can be used for the single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and for Auger therapy, and finally, the 161Tb can be an alternative to 177Lu for β-therapy. Nevertheless, the applications of Terbium are limited at the moment due to its insufficient production and high cost: except for 161Tb, the other radionuclides are produced by nuclear spallation reactions. The use of enriched Gadolinium (Gd) targets can help to increase their availability according to the following production reactions: 152Gd(p,4n)149Tb 1, 152Gd(p,n)152Tb 1, 155Gd(p,n)155Tb 2 and 155Gd(d,2n)155Tb 3. In this work, the 155Tb is taken as a case study, and Gd2O3 enriched in 155Gd is used. Objectives of this work are on the one hand to measure the cross section of the 155Gd(d,2n)155Tb nuclear reaction induced by deuteron, and on the other hand to irradiate enriched Gd2O3 targets for thick target production with deuteron. Description of the Work or Project For the cross section measurement, thin targets (10-20 µm) are required while thicker targets are preferred for production. Therefore, two types of Gd targets with different thicknesses have been developed through two different techniques. Thin targets were manufactured via the electrochemical co-deposition technique. Uniform Ni/Gd2O3 composite targets with a thickness of 10-20 µm containing about 2 mg of enriched Gd were obtained after 35 min of deposition. These targets were irradiated at GIP ARRONAX cyclotron with deuteron beams. Cross sections of 155Tb and other Tb radionuclides (153Tb, 154Tb and 156Tb) were measured from 8 MeV to 30 MeV. These measurements give the first experimental results for the reaction 155Gd(d,x)Tb. From these results, the thick target yield and the purity of 155Tb were estimated. The irradiation parameters for thick target production were also determined from the simulation. Thicker targets were manufactured through the pelletizing technique. A uniform and compact target with a thickness of 390 µm was obtained using 0.6 g of enriched Gd2O3 powder. This target was irradiated by deuteron beams with an incident energy of 15.1 MeV and a beam intensity of 368 nA for 1 h. The production yield of 155Tb was 10.2 MBq/µAh and the purity was 89% after 14 days of decay. These results are consistent with the estimation obtained by the measured cross sections. Conclusions This work shows the possibility of using enriched gadolinium targets to produce terbium radioisotopes via biomedical cyclotrons. Cross sections of deuteron-induced reactions on enriched Gd were measured and a test of thick target production was carried out. As for large batch production, higher intensity and longer irradiation time will be necessary. To this end, specific encapsulation and cooling systems will also be designed and in addition, pure metal Gd targets with better thermal conductivity will be developed.
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    Iodine Radiolabeled Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC)-Exosomes and Their CD73 Enzymatic Activities
    (2023) YANG, Chang-Tong; Lai, Ruenn Chai; Lim, Sai Kiang; Ng, David Chee Eng
    IODINE RADIOLABELLED MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL (MSC)-EXOSOMES AND THEIR CD73 ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES Chang-Tong Yang a,b*,Ruenn Chai Laic, Sai Kiang Limc, David Chee Eng Ng a,b a Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Radiological Sciences Division, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, 169608 Singapore; b Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, 169857 Singapore; cInstitute of Molecular & Cell Biology, 8A Biomedical Grove #05-16 Immunos, 138648, Singapore; * Introduction MSC-derived exosomes have shown therapeutic potential in the areas of cardiovascular, orthopaedic, ophthalmologic, immune, dermatologic diseases and radiation sickness. Efficient radioisotope-labelling of exosomes remains as a challenging process. We demonstrate iodine-131 radiolabeled exosomes using both chloramine-T and Pierce Iodination methods, and characterized I-labelled exosomes via their CD73 enzymatic activities. Experimental methodology and results Two classic radio-iodination methods have been used to label exosomes due to several advantages: relatively long half-life of I-131 (half-life 8 days) and I-124 (half-life 4.2 days, 25.6% positron emission) could enable a desired tracking kinetics of exosomes in vitro and in vivo; radiolabeling of iodine to peptides and antibodies is a well-established chemistry; the unlabeled free iodine after radio-labelling can be easily removed to reach high radiochemical purity. By using chloramine-T, the radiolabeling yield of 131I-labeled-exosomes achieved ~30-40% with a radiochemical purity > 90% after running through PD10 column purification. Using Pierce Iodination, the radiolabeling yield drops to ~15-20%, radiochemical purity achieved >90% after the same purification process. The integrity of I-labeled-exosomes is important in the reproducibility and development of exosome clinical therapeutics. No radioactive iodine was labelled to exosome for characterization of their integrity. The results showed that chloramine T radiolabeling affected the structures of I-labeled-exosomes as the CD73 enzymatic activity of I-labeled exosomes was destroyed, the particle size became much larger and caused broader exosome size distribution. While with Pierce iodination the CD73 activity drops by 50 % when compared to that of the unlabeled exosomes, and the particles kept the same size. Conclusions Using chloramine T method showed that the CD73 enzymatic activity of I-labelled exosomes was destroyed, suggesting the labeling process damaged the structure of exosomes. By comparison, using Pierce Iodination method preserved the CD73 enzymatic activity, indicating that exosomes can be radiolabeled using Pierce Iodination for in vitro and in vivo tracking and pharmacokinetic studies.
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    Fast Neutron SMR’s empowering Regional Isotope Ecosystems
    (2023) Cooper, William
    Ecosystems will evolve around a multi-purpose Small Modular Fast Neutron Reactor and create an innovation-driven economy to become a local, national and international solution for reducing carbon-emissions and supplying high volume and high assay medical isotopes for many decades. This presentation includes a retrospective of the Canadian landscape, the path this decade of the currently developing landscape and what is on the horizon with Multi-purpose Small Modular Fast Neutron Reactors with the example of developing a Regional Isotope Ecosystem around the ARC-100 Sodium Fast Reactor deployment at the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating site in New Brunswick.
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    99Mo production via 99Tc (µ-, ν) 99Mo reaction on recycled 99Tc.
    (2023) Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi
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    The Evolving Landscape of Radioisotopes in Modern Medicine
    (2023) Schaffer, Paul
    Introduction After decades of development, an increasing repertoire of radioisotopes are experiencing rapid growth in demand, both for diagnostic molecular imaging (MI), but also targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) – two modalities with great potential for the identification and treatment of difficult-to-treat diseases, including micro-metastatic cancers, antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections and viral infections. Clinical MI agents (specifically PET and SPECT radiotracers) were dominated for years by a small group of short-lived, main-group positron-, and metallic single-photon emitting radioisotopes. However, recent advances in technologies in and around solid targets and metal isotope production are now enabling cyclotron centres to produce and distribute many emerging and important radionuclides for clinical use. On the TRT front, recent clinical results demonstrating the efficacy of beta- and alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals toward advanced, metastatic disease have triggered a global pursuit for new drugs. Couple this with increasing supply of promising alpha-, beta- and Auger-emitting radionuclides, personalized diagnostic, therapeutic and theranostic medicine is closer to reality now than ever before. Researchers at facilities such as TRIUMF are playing an active and important role in developing and translating new technologies that are paving the way for the discovery and translation of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals that will ultimately enable the paradigm of personalized molecular medicine. Description of the Work or Project Many of the ~1400 medical cyclotrons around the world today operate between 16 and 24 MeV [1], an ideal range for producing, among others, isotopes including 99mTc [2,3], 68Ga [4], 64Cu and 89Zr [5]. Efforts at TRIUMF have led to the development of a solid target transfer and irradiation system, and solid target processing chemistry which has demonstrated a high-yield, automated method for producing GBq-TBq quantities of these isotopes using up to 500 μA of ~13-22 MeV protons. Fully automated dissolution/separation processes along with regulatory filings now allow for cyclotron-produced materials to substitute for other sources used in the clinic today. On the therapeutic isotope front TRIUMF is scaling-up processes to produce 225Ac via the high-energy proton irradiation of 232Th, with the aim of implementing a scalable and routine production operation capable of supporting multiple clinical trials [6]. Targets containing 0.5 mm thick, 11 g thorium foils were irradiated to12,500 μAh with ~450 MeV protons using TRIUMF’s 500 MeV Isotope Production Facility (IPF), producing GBq quantities of 225Ac, 225Ra, 228Th, 212Pb, among a number of other alpha-emitting isotopes of interest [7]. A discussion will include recent experiences with target chemistry automation, product quality control, and Th-spallation waste handling and disposal. Conclusions This presentation will provide a summary update on the development and implementation of several newer technologies toward direct cyclotron-production of various emerging radionuclides across a fleet of 13 to 520 MeV cyclotrons located at TRIUMF and its partner institutions. References [1] Accelerator Knowledge Portal [2] Beaver, J.E., Hupf, H.B. (1971). J Nucl Med. 12(11), 739–41. PMID 5113635 [3] Bénard, F. et al. (2014). J.Nucl.Med. 55(6), 1017-22. [4] Thisgaard, H. et al. (2021). EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry. 6:1. [5] Oehlke, E. et al. (2015). Nucl. Med. Biol. 42, 842-49. [6] Robertson, A.K.H. et al. (2020). Inorg. Chem. 59(17), pp. 12156-165. [7] Robertson A.K.H., Kunz, P., Hoehr, C., Schaffer, P. (2020). Physics Review C, 102, 044613.
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    225Ac production via 226Ra (µ-, n ν)225Fr reaction with 226Ra target.
    (2023) Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi
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    Status of the short-lived radioisotope supplying platform in Japan
    (2023) Kanda, Hiroki; Nakano, Takashi; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro
    The Short-Lived Radioisotope Supplying Platform in Japan has supplied various RIs for promoting the usage of RIs in broad field of science since 2016. The number of research programs is growing reflecting the increasing importance of the use of RIs. We continue supporting the research programs with the efforts of increasing the supply capacity.
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    Radiation Phobia in Korea Provoked by the Fukushima Accident
    (2023) Kang, Keon Wook
    Dr. Keon Wook Kang, a professor from the Department of Nuclear Medicine at Seoul National University Hospital, presented a paper titled "Radiation Phobia in Korea Provoked by the Fukushima Accident." He emphasized that the Fukushima nuclear accident has provoked fear of low-dose radiation, even among medical professionals. Some radiologists, who conduct ultrasonography, refused to examine patients who received PET/CT exams on the same day. Despite the estimated dose being well below 1 mSv per year, they declined to treat the patient, citing ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). This is more of an emotional reaction than a response based on scientific reasoning. Although people often believe that medical doctors are experts in radiation safety, this is not necessarily the case. As such, education on radiation safety should be reinforced in the medical school curriculum. Dr. Kang also addressed the fear surrounding seafood consumption in Korea, triggered by the plan to release treated water from Fukushima. Even though the estimated radiation dose from such seafood is negligible, public trust is undermined, in part, by experts who exaggerate the risk from such trivial doses. Governments, authorities, and radiation safety experts should consistently communicate with the public to debunk the myths and phobias that have been deeply entrenched by decades of media gaslighting.
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    Radiation Dose Assessment of Thorium-containing Gas Mantle in Consideration of Usage Status in Republic of Korea
    (2023) Shin, Jimin; Seo, Hee; Jiyoung, Lee; Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Sangmin
    The IAEA recommends various considerations for specific exemption regulation of consumer products containing radioactive isotopes. One of which is that the results of the dose assessment for all predicable scenarios arising from the use of the products should meet the criteria of 10 μSv/y for general cases and 1 mSv/y for low-probability scenarios. It is necessary to regularly review justification of the radiation regulation exemption considering the usage of consumer products and the latest technology status. In this study, we performed the radiation dose assessment on the exposure scenarios according to the life cycle of the thorium-containing gas mantles in consideration of the status in Republic of Korea. Description of the Work or Project The gas mantles are used as a wick for gas lanterns, and the maximum mass of the product currently produced is 3.5 g. According to Nuclear Safety Act in Republic of Korea, the maximum radioactivity of thorium in the gas mantle exempted from regulation is 700 Bq/g. Therefore, it was assumed that the radioactivity per unit product of the gas mantle is 2,450 Bq. We evaluated the radiation doses for all predictable exposure scenarios when using the gas mantles (i.e., transport, distribution, use, accident, and disposal). The majority of the gas mantles exceeding the generic exemption criteria are imported, so in the case of the transport scenarios, we assumed that gas mantles are distributed from the Incheon Import Logistics Center to retail stores via the parcel distribution centers. In addition, classification at the parcel distribution centers and display at the retail stores were considered as distribution scenarios. Currently, the gas lanterns are mostly used for camping in Republic of Korea; hence, we developed use scenarios related to camping. In the case of accident scenarios, not only traffic accidents during transport and fires at warehouses and houses, but also cases in which children handle a used mantle at campground were considered. Finally, the gas mantles are discarded as general waste, and the disposal methods of general waste are classified as incineration and landfill. So, the incineration and landfill are considered as disposal scenarios. Conclusions Although we assumed the maximum activity of the gas mantle for conservative evaluation, the results of the dose assessment for all scenarios under considerations were far below the IAEA recommendations (i.e., 10 μSv/y and 1 mSv/y). Our next step is to conduct dose assessment for other consumer products containing radioactive isotopes.
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    (2023) Takaki, Naoyuki; Iwahashi, Daiki; Sasaki, Yuto; Maeda, Shigetaka
    The production technology of medical radioisotopes (RI) using existing nuclear fission reactors has been studied to improve/achieve their domestic preparedness in Japan. The target nuclides currently considered in our project are Mo/Tc which is the most commonly used ones in medical diagnosis and Ac-225 which is recently known as effective alpha emitting nuclide for targeted alpha-particle therapy. Existing fission reactors, PWRs and Joyo in Japan, have potentials to work as excellent facilities for medical isotope production, as by-products of heat/electricity generation without consuming electricity and needs for new plant construction.
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    Next-Generation Radiation Spectroscopy Tools
    (2023) Holenda, Stan
    Serva Energy's presentation for 11ICI on our innovations in gamma-ray spectroscopy, custom hardware and software for high-speed (250MS/s) data acquisition, gamma-ray detector signal processing and integration with publicly available data on isotope reactions, decay chains and gamma spectra.
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    A New Family of High-Current Cyclotrons
    (2023) Alonso, Jose R.; Winklehner, Daniel; Conrad, Janet; Villarreal, Joshua; Waites, Loyd
    We have developed a new family of compact cyclotrons capable of 10 mA of protons at energies up to 60 MeV. Designed for the IsoDAR neutrino experiment [1], the x10 current increase could find important applications in isotope production, for products with long half-lives (68Ge) or low cross sections (232Th(p,X)225Ac). A recent development has been use of the breakup of 40-MeV deuteron ions forming an intense fast-neutron field suitable for 226Ra(n,2n)225Ra --> 225Ac, a highly-efficient channel for 225Ac production. Achieving and Using High Currents Beam current limits on today’s isotope cyclotrons arise from extraction foil lifetime and central region erosion from inefficient injection. Our cyclotrons accelerate H2+ ions, reducing the effect of space charge, and bunch 90% of the beam into the RF acceptance window with an RFQ. A beam-dynamics effect discovered at PSI called “vortex motion” translates space charge forces in the cyclotron magnetic field into lateral motion that stabilizes the individual RF beam packets into compact bunches. Halo is generated but is collimated in the first turns. Stable packets are formed in about the first few MeV (~5 turns), allowing for adequate turn separation to enable clean septum extraction of the H2+ ions without use of a stripper foil. Using these principles we can build cyclotrons for energies ranging from a few MeV up to 60 MeV. Turn separation above 60 MeV is lower, but use of structure resonances may enable extending the energy to higher values. Q/A of H2+ is 0.5, so cyclotrons are suitable for D+, He+, C6 ions at the same energy/nucleon. At present, the H2+ ion source and RFQ are ready, the 1.5 MeV Demonstrator is being built, the IsoDAR experiment will be deployed in 5 years. x10 current means x10 beam power. Developing high-power targets will enable the most efficient utilization of the available beam. In the interim, splitting the beam onto as many as 10 target stations is feasible, by employing either RF kicking of bunches into separate beam lines, and/or by insertion of stripper foils into the edges of the extracted H2+ beam to peel off adjustable amounts of protons using a dipole right after the stripper. Conclusions Our designs represent a paradigm shift in cyclotron performance, shattering the beam-current barrier, and opening the door for novel applications. In addition to isotope production, these machines are compact high-flux MeV-range neutron generators; planned uses extend from neutrino production to cost-effective IFMIF-style fusion reactor materials testing platforms. References 1 J.Alonso et al (2022) Neutrino Physics Opportunities with the IsoDAR Source at Yemilab. Phys. Rev. D, 105, 075150.
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    (2023) Godwin, Ini
    The health impacts of nuclear radiation caused by increased human activities in the environment cannot be overlooked. Based on this, 18 well water samples were collected from various locations throughout Jos Metropolis, Jos North LGA, Plateau State, Nigeria, and the following radionuclide concentration activities were examined: 40K, 210Pb, 224Ra, 232Th, and 238U, using a high-resolution gamma ray spectrometer. In well water samples used as drinking water, the assessed average concentration activities of 40K, 210Pb, 224Ra, 232Th, and 238U were determined. The mean concentration ranges from 1.36±0.51 Bq l_1 to 5.75±1.30 Bq l_1. The mean concentration of 40K in well water samples ranges from 3.80±1.19 Bq l_1 to 2.05±0.30 Bq l_1. The mean concentration of dissolved 224Ra in water samples collected varies from 5.75±1.30 Bq l_1 to 1.95±0.58 Bq l_1. 210Pb has an average concentration of 2.68 ± 0.80 Bq l_1 to 1.97±0.87 Bq l_1. 232Th and 238U had average concentrations of 3.09 ± 0.57 Bq l_1 to 1.89±0.24 Bq l_1 and 5.41 ± 1.37 Bq l_1 to 1.36±0.51 Bq l_1 respectively. 210Pb and 224Ra were slightly above the recommended limits of 0.10 Bq l_1 and 1.00 Bq l_1, respectively; this can be linked to the sampled area's geological formation. 232Th and 238U were within the accepted standard limits of 1.00 Bq l_1 and 10.00 Bq l_1 recommended by the WHO (World Health Organization) and ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection). Well water samples from Jos North LGA, showed activity concentrations of detected radionuclides in the following order: 210Pb>224Ra>238U>40K>232Th.
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    Recycling Useful Isotopes from Molten Salt Nuclear Waste
    (2023) Geddes, Kristen; Christensen, Richard; Utgikar, Vivek; Sabharwall, Piyush