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The Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac) is a world leader in infectious disease research and vaccine development. With more than 150 personnel and over four decades of experience, the organization performs research on diseases that impact human and animal health. VIDO-InterVac is a research organization of the University of Saskatchewan and has some of the most advanced containment Level 2 and 3 facilities in the world.


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    Grouping Pig-Specific Responses to Mitogen with Similar Responder Animals may Facilitate the Interpretation of Results Obtained in an Out-Bred Animal Model
    (J Vacc Vaccinol, 2014-04) Wilson, Heather; Pasternak, J. Alex; Ng, Siew Hon; Kaeser, Tobias; Meurens, Francois
    Pig peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) stimulated with mitogens ex vivo can show significant animal-to-animal variation lead to difficulty in interpreting responses in an out-bred animal species. Mixed-cell populations were stimulated ex vivo with 2.5 μg/ml Con A or 2.5 ng/ml PMA plus 250 ng/ml ionomycin (PMAi; (LPCMs only)) or media alone for 72 hours. Supernatants were then tested for cytokine production using a Bioplex assay for porcine IFNα, IFNγ, IL-10, and IL-12. Unstimulated PBMCs had significant levels of IL-10 and the median value for this group decreased in the presence of Con A. Con A did, however, induce production of IFNα and IFNγ, but not IL-12 in this cell population. In contrast, unstimulated and Con A-stimulated LPMCs produced negligible IL-10, IFNα, IFNγ, and the majority of animals’ LPMCs showed negligible IL-12 production in response to Con A. In contrast, LPMCs stimulated with PMAi produced IFNγ suggesting cytokine production is mitogen–specific response. When we tracked animal-specific responses, we observed that discrete subsets of animal’s PBMCs responded to Con A with significantly increased or decreased IL-10 production relative to unstimulated cells. Further, in the LPMCs, some cells produced no IL-12 in response to Con A but showed augmented production in response to PMAi, while others showed production of IL-12 in response to Con A but no response to PMAi. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the PBMCs were a mixture of CD3+ T cells>CD21+ B cells>CD172+ myeloid cells whereas the LPMCs consisted of mainly Cytotoxic T cells and Natural Killer cells. The percentage of CD8α+CD4+ antigen-experienced T cells was greater in the LPMCs relative to the PBMCs. As expected in an out-bred species, animal-specific differences in cytokine production in response to stimulants exist and may confound interpretation of results unless tracked individually.