Histone deacetylase inhibitor regulation of gene expression
Hirsch, Calley Lynn
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) are a group of chemo-preventive and chemo-therapeutic agents that have generated significant attention in clinical trials, given their ability to selectively induce cell cycle arrest, differentiation and/or apoptosis of tumor cells. Presently, these agents are proposed to function by altering gene expression levels, primarily by promoting histone hyperacetylation and gene transcription. However, in this thesis, HDIs are reported to control the expression of genes from the c-Src kinase family and p21WAF1 by means other than transcriptional activation. Overexpression and activation of c-Src, a 60kDa non-receptor tyrosine kinase, has been implicated in the development, growth, progression, and metastasis of several human cancers, especially those of the colon. Butyrate and the more specific histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) were both found to effectively inhibit the expression of c-Src mRNA and protein in a number of tumor cell lines, including those of the colon, liver and breast. Expression of the SRC oncogene is alternatively regulated by the SRC1A and SRC1 promoters. HDIs were shown to repress c-Src expression by inhibiting transcription of both of these promoters, independent of any new protein synthesis. Furthermore, butyrate and TSA similarly regulated the expression of the c-Src family kinase (SFK) members Yes, Fyn, Lyn and Lck in human colon cancer cell lines. In addition, TATA binding protein (TBP) associated factor 1 (TAF1) was shown to be necessary for basal transcription of the SRC1A, YES and LYN promoters, but was not required for HDI mediated repression. Induction of the potent cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 has been identified to be a key feature of HDI mediated cell cycle arrest. The level of p21WAF1 expression has been extensively reported to be directly upregulated by HDIs in a p53 independent manner that requires Sp family binding sites in the p21WAF1 proximal promoter to induce transcription. However, HDIs were shown to be capable of inducing p21WAF1 gene expression, dependent on new protein synthesis, by increasing mRNA stability. To date, p21WAF1 mRNA stability has been extensively studied and a number of cis-acting elements in the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) of the p21WAF1 mRNA have been implicated in the regulation of mRNA stability, such as AU rich elements (AREs) and a 42 nucleotide HuD/Elav binding element. Similarly, in this work, two novel cis-acting elements were identified in the 3’ UTR of p21WAF1 and were shown to facilitate basal and HDI induced post-transcriptional regulation of p21WAF1 mRNA stability in HepG2 cells. Collectively, these studies highlight the intricacy of HDI mediated effects and challenge the preconceptions regarding the molecular mechanism of these anti-tumor agents.
DegreeDoctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
CommitteeNazarali, Adil J.; Laferte, Suzanne; Krone, Patrick H.; Khandelwal, Ramji L.; Roesler, William J.
histone deacetylase inhibitor