The contributions of S1 site residues to substrate specificity and allosteric behaviour of Lactococcus lactis prolidase
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Three residues, Phe190, Leu193 and Val302, which have been proposed to define the S1 site of prolidase of Lactococcus lactis NRRL B-1821 (L. lactis prolidase), may limit the size and polarity of specific substrates accepted by this enzyme (Yang, S. I., and Tanaka, T. 2008. Characterization of recombinant prolidase from L. lactis changes in substrate specificity by metal cations, and allosteric behavior of the peptidase. FEBS J. 275, 271-280). These residues form a hydrophobic pocket to determine the substrate specificity of L. lactis prolidase towards hydrophobic peptides, such as Leu-Pro and Phe-Pro, while little activity was observed for anionic Asp-Pro and Glu-Pro. It is hypothesized that the substrate specificity of L. lactis prolidase would be changed if these residues are substituted with hydrophilic amino acid residues individually or in combinations by site-directed mutagenesis (SDM). In addition to the changes in substrate specificity, other characteristics of wild type prolidase, such as allosteric behaviour and substrate inhibition may receive influences by the mutations (Yang & Tanaka, 2008). To test this hypothesis, mutations were conducted on these three residues at the S1 site. Mutated L. lactis prolidases were subsequently analyzed in order to examine the roles of these residues in the substrate specificity, allosteric behaviour, pH dependency, thermal dependency and metal dependency of prolidase. The results showed the significant changes in these kinetic characteristics of single mutants, such as L193E, L193R, V302D and V302K and double mutants, L193E/V302D and L193R/V302D. Leu193 was suggested to be a key residue for substrate binding. The mutants L193R, V302D, L193R/V302D and L193E/V302D lost their allosteric behaviour, and the substrate inhibition of the wild type was no longer observed in V302D and L193E/V302D. The results indicated Val302 to be more important for these properties than other S1 site residues. Moreover, together with the observations in molecular modelling of the mutants, it was proposed that interactions of Asp302 with Arg293 and His296 caused the loss of allosteric behaviour and substrate inhibition in the V302D mutant. The investigations on the pH dependency suggested that His296 acted as proton acceptor in L. lactis prolidase's catalysis. It was expected that the electrostatic microenvironment surrounding His296 was influenced by the charged mutated residues and side chains of dipeptide substrates, thus the protonation of His296 was affected. It was suggested that the introduced positive charge would stabilize the deprotonated form of His296 thus to maintain the activities of the mutants in more acidic condition compared to wild type prolidase. The study of thermal dependency revealed that all non-allosteric prolidases had higher optimum temperatures, suggesting that the loss of allosteric behaviour resulted in more rigid structures in these prolidases.
DegreeMaster of Science (M.Sc.)
DepartmentApplied Microbiology and Food Science
ProgramApplied Microbiology and Food Science
CommitteeVujanovic, Vladimir; Sanders, David; Qiu, Xiao; Nickerson, Mike
Copyright DateNovember 2009