Responses of selected chickpea cultivars to imidazolinone herbicide
Limitations to broadleaf weed management options in chickpea present obstacles for stable production. Even with low weed incidence, chickpea yield can be severely affected, creating need for an integrated weed management system. Due to zero-tillage commonly practiced in Saskatchewan, there is heavy reliance on herbicides. The chickpea breeding program at the Crop Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan, has developed chickpea cultivars with resistance to imidazolinone (IMI) class of herbicides. The objectives of this study were: (i) to examine the reaction of four chickpea cultivars – CDC Luna, CDC Corinne, CDC Alma, and CDC Cory - to imazamox, imazethapyr, and a combination of imazamox and imazethapyr under field conditions; and (ii) to examine cultivar responses to IMI applications at different growth stages: 2-4 node, 5-8 node, and 9-12 node stage. Field experiments were conducted over five site years in Saskatchewan, Canada in 2012 and 2013. For each experiment, visual injury ratings, plant height, node, and internode length were recorded at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after each herbicide application (DAA). Days to flowering (DTF), days to maturity (DTM), number of primary branches, pods per plant, harvest index, and seed yield were additional measurements for elucidating physiological responses. Conventional cultivars, CDC Luna and CDC Corinne, had moderate to severe visual injury scores compared to resistant cultivars, CDC Alma and CDC Cory, with minimal to no visual injury after IMI treatment. Height stopped increasing and node development slowed for conventional cultivars treated with IMI herbicides. This susceptibility to IMI herbicides was also recognized with a delay in the DTF and DTM. Despite significant negative response, CDC Luna and CDC Corinne were able to recover throughout the field season, resulting in no yield loss from IMI treatments. Resistant cultivars CDC Alma and CDC Cory demonstrated no negative response from IMI herbicide application compared with the untreated controls. Growth, in terms of height and node development, DTF, DTM, and yield were not significantly different between IMI treated and control treatments. Resistant cultivars tolerated IMI herbicide at all growth stages tested. These results demonstrate potential for use of IMI herbicides in chickpea, expanding the currently limited options for broadleaf weed control.
Chickpea, Imidazolinones, Broadleaf weed control, Herbicide resistance
Master of Science (M.Sc.)