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Characterization of anthocyanidin-accumulating Lc-alfalfa for ruminants: nutritional profiles, digestibility, availability and molecular structures, and bloat characteristics

dc.contributor.advisorGruber, Margaret Y.en_US
dc.contributor.advisorYu, Peiqiangen_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberCoulman, Bruceen_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberWang, Yuxien_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberMcKinnon, John J.en_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberChristensen, David A.en_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberWittenberg, Karinen_US
dc.contributor.committeeMemberMutsvangwa, Timothyen_US
dc.creatorJonker, Arjanen_US 2011en_US
dc.description.abstractGrazing cattle on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) would be economically beneficial, but its rapid initial rate of protein degradation results in pasture bloat, low efficiency of protein utilization and excessive N pollution into the environment. Introducing a gene that stimulates the accumulation of mono/polymeric anthocyanidins might reduce the ruminal protein degradation rate and reduce bloat related foam stability. The overall objective of this thesis was to evaluate newly developed anthocyanidin-accumulating Lc-alfalfa progeny for nutritional properties (composition, site of degradation and molecular structure), environmental emissions and bloat characteristics. The objective of the first study was to determine survival and phytochemical and chemical profiles of Lc-alfalfa progeny (BeavLc1, RambLc3 and RangLc4) and their non-transgenic (NT) parental cultivars (Beaver, Rambler and Rangelander). Lc-alfalfa forage accumulated enhanced amounts of anthocyanidin, with an average concentration of 197.4 µg/g DM, while proanthocyanidin (i.e. condensed tannins) were not detected. Both of these metabolites were absent in the NT-parental varieties. Lc-alfalfa progeny had ~3 % less crude protein (CP) and ~3 % more carbohydrates (CHO), which resulted in their 11 g/kg lower N:CHO ratio compared with NT-alfalfa. Total rumen-degradable N:CHO ratio based on chemical analysis was 12.9 g/kg lower in Lc-alfalfa compared with NT-alfalfa. The objective of the second study was to evaluate in vitro degradation, fermentation and microbial-N partitioning of three forage color phenotypes [green, light purple-green (LPG) and purple-green (PG)] within Lc-progeny and their parental green NT-alfalfa varieties. Purple-green-Lc alfalfa accumulated more anthocyanidin than Green-Lc with LPG-Lc intermediate. Gas, methane and ammonia accumulation rates were slower for the two purple-Lc phenotypes compared with NT-alfalfa with Green-Lc intermediate. Effective degradable DM and N were lower in the three Lc-phenotypes compared with NT-alfalfa. Anthocyanidin concentration correlated negatively with gas and methane production rates and effective degradability of DM and N. The objectives of the third study were to evaluate in situ ruminal degradation characteristics and synchronization ratios, and to model protein availability to dairy cattle and net energy for lactation of three Lc-alfalfa progenies, BeavLc1, RambLc3 and RangLc4 and the cultivar AC Grazeland (selected for a low initial rate of ruminal degradation). Anthocyanidin accumulation was on average 163.4 ìg/g DM in the three Lc-progeny while AC Grazeland did not accumulate anthocyanidin. The basic chemical composition of the original samples, soluble and potentially degradable fractions and degradation characteristics of crude protein and carbohydrates were similar in Lc-alfalfa and AC Grazeland. The undegradable in situ crude protein and neutral detergent fiber fraction were, respectively, 1.3 %CP and 4.8 %CHO lower in the three Lc-progeny compared with AC Grazeland. Lc-alfalfa had a 0.34 MJ/kg DM higher net energy for lactation and tended to have a 11.9, 6.9 and 8.4 g/kg DM higher rumen degradable protein, rumen degraded protein balance and intestinal available protein, respectively, compared with AC Grazeland,. The hourly rumen degraded protein balance included an initial and substantial peak (over-supply) of protein relative to energy which was highest in RangLc4 and lowest in RambLc3. The hourly rumen degraded protein balance between 4 and 24 h was similar and more balanced for all four alfalfa populations. The objective of the fourth study was to determine foam formation and stability in vitro from aqueous leaf extracts of three Lc-alfalfa progeny (BeavLc1, RambLc3, RangLc4), parental NT-alfalfa and AC Grazeland (bloat reduced cultivar) harvested in the field at 07:00 or 18:00 h. Anthocyanidin accumulation averaged 247.5 ìg/g DM in the leaves of the three Lc-progeny. There was an interaction between population and harvest time for the foam parameters. Initial foam volume (0 min) and final foam volume (150 min) at 07:00 h were lower for AC Grazeland compared with all other treatments and lower for RangLc4 compared with the other two Lc-progeny at 0 min and NT-alfalfa at 150 min; while from the 18:00 h harvest, initial foam volume was larger for NT-alfalfa and final foam volume was larger for RambLc3 compared with AC Grazeland, BeavLc1 and RangLc4. Foam formation correlated positively (R = 0.30 to 0.44) with leaf DM content, leaf extract protein and ethanol-film content, spectroscopic vibration intensity due to all carbohydrates (CHOVI) and amide I:amide II ratio and negatively (R = -0.33 and -0.34; Pen_US
dc.subjectnutrient profile and availabilityen_US
dc.subjectanthocyanidin-accumulating Lc-alfalfaen_US
dc.subjectpasture bloaten_US
dc.subjectFTIR molecular structuresen_US
dc.subjectruminal fermentation and degradationen_US
dc.titleCharacterization of anthocyanidin-accumulating Lc-alfalfa for ruminants: nutritional profiles, digestibility, availability and molecular structures, and bloat characteristicsen_US
dc.type.materialtexten_US and Poultry Scienceen_US and Poultry Scienceen_US of Saskatchewanen_US of Philosophy (Ph.D.)en_US


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