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Using optimized computer simulation to facilitate the learning process of the free throw in wheelchair basketball



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A computer simulation program was previously developed by the researcher which determines a theoretically optimal movement pattern for the free throw in wheelchair basketball. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the external validity of the optimization program by examining whether the knowledge of the optimal movement pattern facilitates performance of the free throw in wheelchair basketball. In a pilot study, four able-bodied players from the Saskatchewan Wheelchair Basketball Men’s Team were invited to participate on one occasion. These participants were videotaped shooting free throws to provide knowledge of an expert wheelchair free throw movement pattern. Using video analysis, it was found that the release conditions used by this group were very similar to those predicted to be optimal. This lent support to the predicted optimal movement pattern being an actual optimal movement pattern for the free throw in wheelchair basketball. In the primary study, thirty-three able-bodied male participants were randomly assigned to three groups: a no-feedback group; a video-feedback group; and an optimal pattern feedback group. The participants performed wheelchair basketball free throw training for three days over one week. The no-feedback group simply shot free throws from a wheelchair, whereas the video-feedback group viewed video of their previous free throws, and the optimal pattern group viewed video of their previous free throws with an optimal free throw pattern superimposed. The participants also completed a pretest one week before and a retention test one week after the training period. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for significant differences between the three training groups in free throw success in wheelchair basketball over each testing occasion. The statistical analyses indicated that there were no differences in free throw success between the group that had knowledge of their personalized optimal movement pattern when compared to the groups that received either no-feedback or video-feedback (p



wheelchair basketball, simulation, optimization



Master of Science (M.Sc.)


College of Kinesiology


College of Kinesiology


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