Development of a Large-Dose, High-Resolution Dosimetry Technique for Microbeam Radiation Therapy using Samarium-Doped Glasses and Glass-Ceramics
Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a potential cancer therapy technique that uses an intense X-ray beam produced by a synchrotron. In MRT, an array of microplanar beams, called a microbeam, is delivered to a tumour. The dose at each centre of planar beams is extremely large (several hundred grays) while dose level in the valley between the peaks is below several tens of gray. Moreover, the width of each planar beam is typically 20 - 50 µm, and the distance from a centre of planar-beam to that of adjacent beam is 200 - 400 µm. For the latter reasons, the fundamental requirements for the dosimetry technique in MRT are (1) a micrometer-scale spatial resolution and (2) detection sensitivity at large doses (5 - 1000 Gy). No existing detectors can satisfy those two requirements together. The objective of the Ph.D. research is to develop a prototype dosimetry technique which fulfils the requirements for measuring the dose profile in the microbeam. The currently used approach relies on the indirect detection of X-rays; in which the X-ray dose is recorded on a detector plate, and then the recorded signals are digitized using a reader. Our proposed approach utilizes Sm3+-doped polycrystallites, glasses, and/or suitable glass-ceramics (though our approach is not limited to the use of Sm ion) for the detector plate, in which a valence reduction of Sm3+, that is the conversion of Sm3+ to Sm2+, takes place upon irradiation of X-rays. The extent of reduction is further read out using confocal fluorescence microscopy via the photoluminescence (PL) signals of Sm3+ and Sm2+. The work carried out throughout the course of the research includes the construction of confocal fluorescence microscopy, synthesis and characterizations of dosimeter materials, as well as application tests of our approach for measuring the dose profile of a microbeam used at synchrotron facilities -- Canadian Light Source (CLS), Saskatoon, Canada, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), Grenoble, France, and SPring-8, Hyogo, Japan. Further, the research has shown that 1 % Sm-doped fluoroaluminate glass is one of the best candidates for the type of dosimetric application. It has the dynamic range of ~1 to over 1000 Gy which covers the dose range used in MRT, excellent signal-to-noise ratio (large extent of Sm3+ → Sm2+ change), and excellent stability of recorded signal over time. The recorded signal in the detector is erasable by heating or exposing to light such as UV. Furthermore, with a use of confocal microscope, it has ability to measure the distribution pattern of dose over the cross-section of microbeam. Therefore, we believe that our approach is one of the most promising techniques available.
Samarium, Glass, Glass-Ceramic, X-ray, Dosimetry, Microbeam Radiation Therapy, Photoluminescence, Confocal Microscopy
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
Electrical and Computer Engineering