Impacts of Select Sociocultural Practices on Maternal Mortality in Nigeria: A Scoping Review
Maternal mortality is a national health challenge which remains unresolved in Nigeria. According to the WHO (2015), maternal mortality rate was 814 deaths per 100,000 live births, making Nigeria the fourth highest in the world and second highest in West Africa. The primary causes of maternal mortality often highlighted are biomedical. However, there are also non-biomedical causes that limit the use of maternal health services and increase the risk of maternal mortality in developing countries, like Nigeria. There is minimal research on the impact of these non-biomedical causes (such as sociocultural practices) on maternal mortality. The objectives of this research are to identify literature impacting maternal mortality in a positive, neutral or, negative way. Using the scoping review, sociocultural factors/practices impacting maternal mortality were explored. A total of 35 articles were included in the final scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute Manual and Arksey and O’Malley framework. The PEN-3 model was used as a conceptual framework to identify positive, neutral, and negative sociocultural practices. Omugwo and rooming in, pregnant women lying on their sides are examples of positive sociocultural practices that potentially minimize the risk of mortality, while poverty, poor maternal education, early child marriage, and female genital mutilation are examples of negative sociocultural practices increasing the risk of maternal mortality. Major findings reveal the uniqueness and impact culture plays on health and health behaviour and corroborate the need to address the impact of sociocultural practices if a reduction in maternal mortality is to be achieved. The unacceptable high maternal mortality rate in Nigeria also suggests the need to implement culturally appropriate interventions and strategies if the sustainable goals are to be achieved by 2030.
Sociocultural, values/beliefs, maternal mortality, pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum
Master of Nursing (M.N.)