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Modeling and validation of crop feeding in a large square baler



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This study investigated the crop density in a New Holland BB960 (branch of CNH Global N.V.) large square baler as examined by crop trajectory from the precompression room to the bale chamber. This study also examined both the top and bottom plunger pressures and critical factors affecting the final top and bottom bale densities.The crop trajectories (wad of crop) were measured using a high-speed camera from the side of the baler through viewing windows. The viewing windows were divided into four regions for determining the crop displacement, velocity and acceleration. Crop strain was used to evaluate the potential change in density of the crop before being compressed by the plunger. Generally, the vertical crop strain was found to be higher in the top half of the bale compared to the bottom. Average strain values for side measurements were 12.8% for the top and 2.1% for the bottom. Plunger pressures were measured to compare peak pressures between the top and bottom halves of each compressed wad of crop, and to develop pressure profiles based on the plunger’s position. Results of comparing the mean peak plunger pressures between the top and bottom locations indicated the mean pressures were significantly higher at the top location with the exception of one particular setting. Resulting pressure profile graphs aided in qualitatively describing the compression process for both top and bottom locations.A stepwise regression model was developed to examine the difference in material quantity in the top half of the bale compared to the bottom, based on bale weights. The model indicated that flake setting, stuffer ratio and number of flakes had the greatest effect on maintaining consistent bale density by comparing top to bottom halves of each bale. The R2 (coefficient of determination) value for the developed model was of 59.9%. The R2 was low although could be accounted for due to the limited number of data points in the developed model.



high speed video, crop trajectory, large square baler, crop compression



Master of Science (M.Sc.)


Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering


Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering



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